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Full text of "North Carolina women of the Confederacy"

N. C. Women of the Confederacy 



Anderson 



C&e Mbtaty 

o£ the 

Ontoersitp of il3ort|) Carolina 




Collection ot iRortf) Caroliniana 
^10 book toag ptegtntto 




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UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



00032770270 
This book must not 

be taken from the 

Library building. 



LUNC-10M Ag 41 






•Bfartlj Carolina Wttmtn 

of tlye 

Cottfeiteranj 




'Lest We Forget' 



Sfartij Carolina Wttuivn 

of tl?0 

©onfeiteraty 



Written and Published by 

MRS. JOHN HUSKE (LUCY LONDON) ANDERSON 

fayetteville, n. c. 

Hiistorian, North Carolina Division 
United Daughters of the Confederacy 

1926 







THE FIRST CONFEDERATE MONUMENT 
IN NORTH CAROLINA 



Erected by the WOMEN of Fayetteville, December 30, 1868 
In Cross Creek Cemetery 



INSCRIPTION: 

~Nfiv shall your glory be forgot while fame her records \eep, 
Or Honor points the hallowed spot where valor proudly sleeps. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/northcarolinawomOOande 



In iCoumg Steitmtibranre 



This Volume is Dedicated 

TO 

NORTH CAROLINA'S WOMEN 

OF THE 

CONFEDERACY 

"Whose loving ministrations nursed the wounded 

to health, 
And soothed the last hours of the dying; 

Whose unselfish labors 
Supplied the wants of their defenders in 

the field, 
Whose unwavering faith in our Cause 

Showed ever a guiding star, 
Through the perils and disasters of war; 

Echoes sublime fortitude 
Sustained them under every privation and 

all suffering, 
Whose floral offerings 

Were yearly laid upon the graves of those 
Whom they loved and honored; 

and 
Whose patriotism 

Has taught their children 
To emulate the deeds of their Confederate sires." 

(From the "Women of the South" Supplement.) 



CONTENTS 



****»»»*»*»* 



First Confederate Monument in North Carolina. 

Dedicative Page 3 

Foreword Page 7 

Women of the Confederacy Page 9 

The Mothers of Many Inventions Page 12 

Women Take Men's Places Page 14 

Secret Service Work Page 16 

Women Prepare for War Page 21 

Blockade Running Into Wilmington Page 37 

Women in Nursing and Hospital Work Page 40 

• Picture of a Yankee Foraging Party. 

Courage Displayed Page 49 

Canteen Work Page 59 

Other Incidents of Women's Work Page 59 

Heroic Women of Western North Carolina Page 71 

Wit and Repartee Page 77 

Literary Women of the Sixties Page 87 

Christmas During the Confederacy Page 81 

Women Urge Church Bells for Confederate Cannon Page 91 

Other Characters of North Carolina Page 94 

Founder of North Carolina Division of the U. D. C Page 97 

Young Women Take Men's Places Page 102 

Recollections of Young Girls Page 103 

First Confederate Flags Made by North Carolina Women Page 107 

First Monuments and Memorial Associations Page 116 

North Carolina Mothers of Many Sons Page 123 

Welcome Home, Heroes in Gray Page 133 

North Carolina Verses of the Sixties Page 136 



FOREWORD 

In presenting this little volume to the people of toy State, I do so 
with the hope that this may be the beginning of a REAL HISTORY of 
the part the women of North Carolina took in the Confederacy. It is 
with great happiness that I am realizing a "dream come true," in the pub- 
lication of these few sketches I have collected, which illustrate the his- 
tory of North Carolina women of the Confederacy. The many delight' 
ful friendships that I have made in trying to "discover 1 ' our women of 
the Sixties invanous communities, have more than repaid me for the 
hundreds of letters written. Many more names and incidents could have 
found a place here if all the sections of the State had responded to my 
"call" for facts about the women of the Confederacy. 

These stories that have been recorded are well authenticated, but the 
collection of these was like digging in the "undug 11 earth for hidden gold, 
hard to find, but very precious when discovered. 

My grateful appreciation is given to those who have allowed me to 
share their "memories," and to turn back the pages of history with them. 

To be a Daughter of the Confederacy is the greatest honor we can 
pay our Confederate ancestry, and it is the sacred duty of each member 
of this beloved organisation to fulfill the first object of the Constitution 
of the North Carolina Division, which is 

"To honor the memory of those who served and those who fell in the 
service of the Confederate States, * * * also to recall the part taken by 
Southern women in patient endurance of hardship and patriotic devotion 
during the struggle, as in untiring efforts after the war during the recon' 
struction of the South." 

What prouder heritage can we give our children than these records? 
Every land cherishes its memories, and history is nothing but memories - 
so when every Daughter of the Confederacy awakens to the importance 
of preserving these records we will have a history of our State that will 
fill VOLUMES. 

We may prove worthy descendants of these noble women of the 
Sixties, and in remembrance of them let us strive for their steadfastness 
and courage. "Their brave deeds shall brightly shine upon the books 
of FAME, and Time's immortal scroll will keep the record of their names. 

Lucy Worth London Anderson. 
fayetteville, N. C. 
August 23 rd, 192t>. 



NORTH CAROLINA WOMEN 
OF THE CONFEDERACY 



"The loving mothers, sisters, sweethearts, wives, 
Who, when the war drum's fatal summons came, 
Gave up the dearest treasures of their lives 
And bore the Martyr's cross in Freedoms name." 



The spirit displayed by those women of the Confederacy was worthy 
of the wives and mothers of the grandest heroes who ever fought on the 
field of battle. 

The women of North Carolina in the Confederacy possessed the same 

•X'rageous and self -reliant spirit, that was inherited from this States' Co- 

lenial and Revolutionary women, who acted with their men in shaping 

ome of the most inmportant events in the establishing of the United 

States of America. 

We point with pride to the fact that North Carolina women were the 
first to resist the unjust tax of England, in the Edenton "Tea Party;" 
that our State made the first open resistance against the Stamp Act; that 
the first battle of the Revolution was in Alamance County; that the first 
Declaration of Independence was signed (May 20, 1775) by the patriots 
~,f Mecklenburg county, that at Halifax was assembled the first Provin- 
•ial Congress which instructed delegates to stand for Independence, and 
*■ the battle of Moore's Creek was fought the first real victory for the 
colonies. 

In the war between the States North Carolina has a proud heritage 
which should be handed down to the remotest generation — for did we 
not give more men to the cause and lost more than any other Southern 
State? The women of our State point with pride to the fact that North 
Carolina was: "First at Bethel, fartherest at Gettysburg and Chicamauga: 
nd last at Appomattox" 

So much the greater pride we should feel for these women of our State 
ot the Sixties, who are much closer in blood to our women of today than 



it) 'Horih Carolina Women 

those of one'hundred and fifty years ago, and we should pass on the in' 
dividual story of the self 'sacrifice and courage of North Carolina's wo- 
man of the Confederacy. 

"Let us preserve her memory and \eep fresh, 
Li\e flowers in dew, her noble deeds." 

Though it was with sorrowing hearts they saw NoYth Carolina leave 
the Union, yet when her State's rights were violated and their beloved 
State threatened by hostile foe, they showed the resolute spirit of their 
pioneer "mothers 1 ' when they took their stand beside their Confederate 
soldiers in the fight for State Sovereignty. 

That the women of our State today may better appreciate and value 
the character and achievements of the Women of the Confederacy, it is 
my privilege to give glimpses of these women, and I have tried to record 
a bit of their history, from 1861 to 1865, a great part of which is un' 
written. 

To attempt to portray as well as our imperfect records permit, the 
spirit, character, and deeds of the North Carolina Women of the Con' 
federacy, is a difficult task, for so little has been preserved as to the part 
individual women of the State played in the war. 

Their noblest eulogy is a simple portrayal of their character and 
work. The noble heroism of these women showed itself in uncomplain- 
ing suffering, in loving ministration and in the efficient discharge of ar- 
duous duties. 

Many eulogies have been given to the Women of the Confederacy 
but these pages are simply to ressurect a few names and incidents which 
could be duplicated in every section of the State. North Carolina Wo' 
men of the Sixties! Who shall call one a heroine more than the other, 
for all worked in the same way to the same end! "The humblest soul 
who does her bit, in God's own book of Life is writ." 

The way our women of the Sixties rose to meet the emergency of war 
should place her name high in the State's Hall of Fame. 

Every community had her heroine, and its special story of splendid 
daring, endurance, and achievement should be put on record. The story 
of the ingenious devices and clever makeshifts to supply needful things 
during the years of blockade and non-production; the ills and atrocities of 
Reconstruction; the records of Soldier's Aid Societies, Wayside Hospitals, 
and Memorial Associations; sketches of every day life in the Confederacy 



of the Confederacy i 1 

■ — its lights and shadows, fun, work, jokes, songs, costumes, and fare — 
all these are of great value in preserving for a history of these women in 
each section of North Carolina. 



12 Horth Carolina 'Women 



THE MOTHERS OF MANY INVENTIONS 

"Our mothers wove of cornshuc\ brai 

Their hats and bas\ets too, 
Of homespun all their dresses made, 

Those testing days of '62. " 



The. women were in truth "The mothers of many inventions" and in 
every locality of this State and of the South there was shown the same 
resourcefulness in manufacturing household articles. Hats were fabri' 
cated from palmetto leaves, corn shucks, oat straw and broad leaved 
grasses, buttons made from gourds, clothes fastened with buttons 
of persimmon seeds, slippers made from rabbit and squirrel fur and old 
tent canvas. Much of the underwear, blankets, towels, jeans for clothing 
for the soldiers were made at home by spinning or weaving. Everything 
was utilized. Cartridge belts and boxes were made from layers of cloth 
sewed together and covered with varnish. 

The fur of rabbits was mixed with a small amount of cotton and 
carded and spun into thread and made into stockings and gloves. 

Roots, bark, leaves and twigs of trees were used for dye with a small 
amount of copperas or bluestone which was carefully preserved. A kind 
of clay was used for dye. 

Shoes were made of cowhides in the natural state and were blacked 
with soot taken from the bottom of iron pots used in cooking over the 
fire. Cloth uppers were made by the women themselves when the soles 
of worn-out shoes were in good condition or had enough foundation to 
resole. 

The best and warmest of the cloth was made into clothes for the men 
and a clean suit was always on hand in case any of them should come 
home. 

The necessity developed all their latent ingenuities as they had to find 
substitutes for food such as sugar, coffee, soda and tea. Sorghum was 
used for sugar; rye, wheat and okra for coffee; ashes of corn cobs for 



of the Confederacy 13 

soda; and any suitable dried leaf for tea, such as sassafras and blackberry. 

Such household necessities as candles were made by placing drippings 
in a pan with a woolen rag for the wick. Pine knots were also used. 
Soap was made by boiling scraps of meat, meat-skins and bones in lye, 
obtained by placing wood ashes in a keg or barrel, or any wooden vessel, 
and dripping water through. 

Tea and coffee were sweetened with sorghum molasses. Christmas 
fruit cake was made for the soldiers out of dried cherries, dried whortle 
berries, candied watermelon rind and molasses. 

When beeves disappeared and there was no tallow for candles, syca- 
more balls were soaked in fat and burned in pans for lights, or strings 
twisted hard were put in bottles filled with grease or beeswax. Ink, 
colored with indigo or berry juice was made from oak and cedar balls. 
Old scraps of wall paper, summed with flour plaste, served to carry 
tender messages to soldiers far away. Our women of the sixties were 
pharmacists as well as chemists. They compounded from herbs many 
simple remedies for their children and servants, when there was no med' 
icine to be had. Nitre for gunpowder was often dug by the women from 
old smoke houses, and tobacco barns. 

Wool from old mattresses was often recarded and spun into yarns for 
socks to keep the soldiers from having cold feet. Carpets, heavy cur' 
tains and draperies were unraveled and woven into blankets for the army. 
In answer to a call for silk for war balloons, discarded silken dresses were 
pulled apart and the silk furnished. Garments discarded years before 
were made over for indefinite service. The homespun cloth which was 
woven at home was a uniform for men, women and children. To re- 
lieve its ugliness the women concocted dyes of various kinds from poke 
berries and elder berries and some of these dresses were far more prized 
than formerly had been the brocades and satins. These Confederate 
girls wore them proudly, singing the patriotic song of the South: 

"My homespun dress is plain I \now, 

My hat's palmetto too; ? 
But then they show what Southern girls 

For Southern rights will do." 



14 Kiorth Carolina Women 



WOMEN TAKE MEN'S PLACES 

"Hear ye not the sound of battle, 
Sabres clash and mus\ets rattle? 
Fight away, fight away, fight away in Dixie Land." 

At the advent of war our women had to take up the burdens dropped 
by the absent fathers and brothers and with real ability they assumed 
control of plantations, stock and slaves, financed the homes and indus' 
tries of the State. Many women of wealth joined the poorer women in 
tilling the fields and reaping the harvests, as many of the slaves joined 
the Federals. The fact that these women, in a great part, kept the State 
fed, attests their ability, and during the last months of the war, almost 
the entire army of General Lee was fed by North Carolina. The bur' 
dens imposed on these capable women increased each day, and additional 
responsibilities were assumed. 

A few months before Lee's surrender, news reached central North 
Carolina that his army was without food. At once, in houses both hum- 
ble and stately, the women made a division even to the last peck of 
meal and with no thought of themselves the contribution to the army 
was shipped. When a tax was levied by the State for whatever re- 
mained in the storehouse or crib, the women met the tax with little 
evasion. Nothing was a sacrifice for these women, when relieving the 
wants of their soldiers. 

When the first N. C. Hospital was equipped and opened at Petersburg 
in October, 1861, under Doctor Peter Hines, of Raleigh, from among 
the women of this State, who offered their services as nurses, three very 
efficient ones were chosen. They were Mrs. Kennedy of Wilmington, 
Mrs. Beasley of Plymouth, and Miss MX. Pettigrew of Raleigh. 

In almost every neighborhood they organised sewing societies, knit- 
ting associations, hospital aid societies and nursing clubs. In many places 
churches were turned into hospitals and were depots for bolts of cloth, 
linen and flannel. Sewing machines ran day and night. At railroad 



of the Confederacy 15 

junctions, such as Raleigh, Goldsboro, Greensboro, Charlotte, Salisbury, 
Weldon, Fayetteville, wayside hospitals equipped with surgeons, medi- 
cal supplies and rude operating tables were established., with the women 
volunteering as nurses. Countless women went from house to house 
distributing cloth to be sewed and yarns to be woven and then collected 
and shipped as offerings to their soldiers. After an ardous day women 
often worked far into the night, adding comfort to their soldier boys 
who were fighting for the land they loved. 

The women and girls made the haversacks and knapsacks of leathe 1 
bound with braid, aiso the heavy coats, worn by the men, fully equipping 
companies of soldiers. The girls knitted hundreds of pairs of socks, 
made knapsacks, knit mufflers, gloves, wristlets, havelocks, (helmets) 
and were busy every moment. Then there were the "good things" put 
up in boxes and sent to camp, pies, etc., each article meaning real self' 
denial by those at home. 

We had a "Molly Pitcher" right here in our own state, (Mrs. L. M. 
Blalock), disguised as a Confederate soldier, she with her husband, on 
May 20, 1 62, joined the 26th North Carolina regiment as recruits, from 
Caldwell county, and was' supposed to be a young brother of her husband. 
She served nearly a year and took regular soldier fare, being in three big 
battles. Not one of the company suspected she was a woman till her 
husband being discharged on account of sickness, she disclosed her identi' 
ty and resigned. 



16 Worth Carolina 'Women 



SECRET SERVICE WORK 



"God shares the gift of head and heart, 
And crowns blest woman with a hero's part." 

One of the most outstanding heroines that North Carolina can claim 
in the War between the States was Miss Emmeline Pigott of Carteret 
County. This young woman's name deserves a high place among our 
State's bravest women, for her cool courage was often shown in the midst 
of great danger. At the beginning of the war, Miss Pigott, then a 
young girl, had given her whole heart to the cause of the South, nursing 
the sick and wounded soldiers who were brought in from the attacks on 
our coasts. Her soldier sweetheart fell in the battle of Gettysburg and 
after that Emmeline Pigott felt that she must do even more for the Con- 
federacy. She offered herself for secret service work in the Confeder- 
ate Government, and bore important dispatches in large pockets adjusted 
under her full skirts. Many dangerous journeys were made by her be- 
tween New Bern (which was occupied by the Yankees) and the sea' 
ports, and she narrowly escaped capture very often, going through great 
danger to fulfill her mission. 

Finally this daring young girl was seized, and while being searched, 
she chewed up and swallowed the important message which she had con' 
cealed on her. If this had been discovered she would have been shot as 
a spy. She was imprisoned at New Bern and while there an attempt 
was made on her life by the administering of chloroform through her 
prison window. 

Friends worked hard to free her, but without success, but at length 
she sent for some influential men in New Bern whom she knew were 
traitors, telling them if she were brought to trial she would disclose things 
that would cause them to suffer. So their influence was brought to 
bear with the Federal authorities and she was released without a trial. 
The name of Emmeline Pigott is held in the highest veneration, and the 
Morehead City Chapter of the U. D C. is named in her honor. To 



of the Confederacy 17 

the end of her eighty years no cause was so dear to her as the Con' 
federacy. 



Heroines of New Bern 



"Where the dar\ening storm of danger gathers round, 

There woman, with undaunted faith and courage brave, is found." 

When New Bern was captured by the Yankees, the women who had 
not escaped, suffered greatly. The story of New Bern's capture, and 
the suffering of its women, is told by Mrs. F. C. Roberts, a daughter of 
Mr. J. C. Cole, one of the most loyal of Confederates. Mrs. Roberts 
says, "Those who remained in New Bern could hear nothing from their 
loved ones, outside the town, (as the Federals were occupying New 
Bern) except through the underground mail." 

With all their vigilance the Federal troops could not discover who 
delivered this mail, and who received it. Governor Stanley, an old 
personal and political friend of her father (Mr. J. L. Cole) obtained 
permission for Mrs. Alexander Taylor to go freely about the town and 
to visit the prisioners and relieve the wants of the poor sufferers con' 
fined in the prisons. She had many false pockets and somehow into 
them the daily mail crept. 

On one occasion a Federal officer joined her in the street; he said, 
"Mrs. Taylor, it is very strange, but we cannot find out how or where 
this Rebel mail comes in or who receives it." Her heart was in her 
throat; she thought her last hour had come, and she would be shot as 
a spy, but she determined to die game, so she said, "Why I receive it and 
at this moment my pockets are full of letters; would you like to see 
them?" It passed as a joke, but it was rather risky, and had they been 
found on her, her life would have paid the forfeit. 

Mrs. Taylor visited the prison daily and ministered to the unfortun' 
ates there — often going hungry that she might have some delicacy to 
take them. She was called "The Prison Mother," and many a poor 
captive called her blessed. Among these was a lady from Beaufort, who 
barely escaped being shot as a spy. (This was Miss Emmeline Pigott, 
whose thrilling story, has been recorded). 



18 N.orth Carolina Women 

Mrs. M. C. Cole and Mrs. Taylor, accustomed all their lives to ease 
and luxury, tended their own gardens, rolled the wheelbarrow, dug with 
Bpade and hoe, raised vegetables for their own tables and to sell. And 
while doing this the Federal soldiers sat on the fences and ridiculed 
them, calling them "gal" and "aunty" and "mama." 

Mrs. Elizabeth Carraway Howland also rendered valuable aid when 
New Bern was captured, in sending out specifications of the forts the 
Yankees were making and other information to our troops. She would 
secret the paper in a small roll inside the bone of a ham which her small 
daughter and son carried down the river to the Confederates. The little 
girl would present a bouquet of flowers to the Captain of the Federal 
gunboat and she would be allowed to pass without being searched. 

This splendid woman, who had studied medicine with her father, 
doctored the Confederate prisoners ill with yellow fever in New Bern, 
and not one of her patients died, though the Yankee doctors lost hun' 
dreds. She was a prison angel, secretely clothing and feeding these des- 
titute sufferers. 

These New Bern women not only suffered persecution by the Yan- 
kees, but went through a terrific scourge of yellow fever, caused by 
quantities of meat being allowed to decay on the scorching wharves. 
They nursed the ill and then assited in burying the dead. Mrs. Julius 
Lewis (before her marriage, Abigail Hart) kept Northern officers in her 
home to get from them news for the Confederacy. If she had been 
found out she would have been shot as a spy. 

Mrs. A. M. Meekins ran the blocade into New Bern to ascertain for 
General Lee the exact strength of the Federal forces there before the 
Confederate's attack on Fort Fisher. isguised as a country woman 
with a bale of cotton to sell, with her ready wit she secured the desired 
information and passed safely back through the Union lines. 



Among the splendid women of New Berne Miss Mary Attmore is an 
outstanding figure. Not only for her memorial work after the war, but 
for her indomitable courage and forceful character during the capture 
of New Berne. When this town had been taken by the Yankees Miss 
Attmore, as one of the most prominent of its women, was kept as one of 
the hostages to insure the safety of the Federals within, as they were in 
constant fear that New Berne would be fired on by troops without. In 



of the Confederacy 19 

spite of the protests of her relations Miss Attmore refused to leave her 
home, but lived alone without fear. Twice she was almost choked to 
death by "bummers" who were intent to plunder, but miraculously es' 
Caped. In the grey of an early morning she awoke to find several Yan' 
kees digging up the graves in the family burial ground on her estate. 
Without hesitation or calling for help, this independent woman with 
great dignity of learning, appeared amongst the marauders, commanding 
them to put down their shovels at once, exclaiming "Is it possible that 
you could be be guilty of such a dastardly trick as to dig open the graves 
of our ancestors !" The men, to the amazement of neighbors who wit' 
nessed the scene, not only removed their caps, but began replacing the 
earth on the graves and departed, leaving this free spoken and courageous 
woman in possession of her dead. 

By her ready wit, free speech and fearlessness she compelled the ad' 
miration of her captors and was allowed greater liberty than the other 
residents of New Berne. 

Though a cultured and refined Southern woman, Miss Mary Attmore 
possessed characteristics of a general in her command of the most terrible 
situations, showing the spirit of her revolutionary ancestor, Thomas Att' 
more. 

The President of the North Carolina Division United Daughters of 
the Confederacy, Mrs. J. Dolph Long, Hannah Attmore by birth, is the 
great niece of this intrepid woman of the sixties. 



"God shares the gift of head and heart, 
And crowns blest woman with a hero's part. 



There is an unknown heroine of New Berne whose intrepid daring 
is worthy of record, though her name was not disclosed by Col. Stephen 
D. Pool, the narrator of this incident in Clark's N. C. Histories. Col. 
Pool says that in November '62, he was ordered to Trenton, N. C, to 
capture a Federal train. In the early morning hours an elderly country 
man dashed up on a fastly ridden horse and delivered to him a paper, 
which on being opened, appeared to be blank. The rider said that a 
young girl had ridden alone to his door in the darkness of night and dc 



20 Tsjorth Carolina Women 

livered this note and told him to take it at full speed to any Confederate 
officer at Trenton, as it contained important information. 

Col. Pool applied to the seemingly blank sheet of paper, a hot iron, 
the heat bringing out the writing (probably written with milk.). It said 
that. the Federal General had returned to New Berne two days sooner 
than anticipated and was to leave that very morning with a force ac- 
curately detailed on the paper, on an expedition to burn the railroad 
bridge at Weldon. The object of Col. Poors plans being thus frustrated, 
he returned at once to Kinston and gave the officer in command the 
information which he had secured through the daring of this loyal girl 
of the Confederacy, Such an array of troops was placed in front and 
upon the flanks of the Federal General as to cause him to rapidly retrace 
his steps. 

The lady requested that her name not be told, but it was found that 
she was one most tenderly reared and very young, and her night ride at 
great personal risk to convey this important information, was greatly ap- 
preciated by the Confederates. This is the only story of a woman of 
the Confederacy recorded in the State's Regimental Histories amongst the 
daring deeds of the men of North Carolina. 

The little five year old daughter of Mrs. Corbett, Mary Bailey Mur- 
phy, with unusual foresight for a child, hearing that Sherman's soldiers 
were coming, had begged her mother to let her hide her own silver spoons 
and forks (old family silver, which had been given her by her grand- 
mother.) So this plucky little girl of the sixties dug up her box which 
had been buried beside that of her mother's, and hid it herself, and this 
was the only hidden treasure that the hummers did not find. This silver 
is one of her treasured possessions today, this little girl being now Mrs. 
Beaman, the beloved Superintendent of the North Carolina Confederate 
Woman's Home. 



of the Confederacy 21 



WOMEN PREPARE FOR WAR 

"And when our rights were threatened, the cry rose near and far." 



Every community had its soldiers aid and knitting societies and each 
mother, wife, sweetheart and sister looked after her own dear ones on 
the field, and constantly sent comfortable clothing and boxes of food to 
them from their own depleted larders. 

We cannot mention many of these societies, but facts concerning some 
have been secured. 



Recollections of Fayetteville Women 



After the United States Arsenal at Fayetteville was taken by the Cum' 
berland County Militia, April 22, 1861, the women of Fayetteville re' 
turned to their serious work of fininshing the equipment of their soldiers 
for the terrible work before them, that of WAR. A reminiscence writ' 
ten by Miss Sarah Ann Tillinghast just after the war ended, gives us a 
vivid picture of how the young girls did their part in the war'work. She 
says: "The school girls were wild; no use was it to mention books to them; 
it was their plain duty to sew for the soldiers, and sew they did, though I 
must say that some of their work might have been criticized by particular 
persons. There were dress parade suits and fatigue suits to be made as 
well as underclothing suitable for camp life — tents, haversacks, canteens 
to be covered, in fact every part of the outfit except the knapsacks, was 
made by the volunteer labor of the women. They assembled in bees from 
house to house, where the most experienced ladies could oversee the dif- 
ficult parts of the work, such as the making of the coats which could 
be trusted to no novices. And when our first two companies left us, 
we felt that they were as well provided for as soldiers could expect to be 
and we girls were proud to feel that we had done our part as well as 
school girls could be expected to. 



22 Worth Carolina Women 

What wonderful triumphs of genius were then achieved by the ladies 
in the "reconstruction" of old dresses, in "making claise auld claise look 
as maist as weels' the new." How garrets were ransacked for old dis- 
carded garments, that were brought out and surprised by having a fresh 
lease, on life given them in new characters. What nice bonnets were 
made of old black silk dress bodies, trimmed with goose , feathers, and 
lined with red or blue satin from the lining of old coat sleeves, hats con- 
structed of old discarded ones of feathers, trimmed with old coat's col' 
lars and cock's plumes cut off the rooster in the yard. Space fails me to 
tell of all the "shifts" that were made — not that we thought so much of 
our personal appearance as in happier times, but women will always try 
to "look decent" at least, and young girls will not often be found too 
sad to refuse to considerthe set of a dress or the becomingness of a hat. 

But through all the privations, real or relative, not one of us ever 
thought of the possibilities of giving up. To the bitter end we believed 
firmly in the justice and final success of the cause, and even after the 
devastation of Sherman's army we did not lose hope, but thought "some 
way" would be found out of the difficulty. 

The surrender of Lee came upon us like a thunderclap. We refused 
to believe it. "Lee surrendered!" "Lee would never surrender." Wo- 
men are so unreasonable, they can't see what they don't want to see 
really. We begged the soldiers not to give up. It could not be possible 
that the South was subdued. We wept and wrung our hands. "March 
on to death or victory!" was our cry. 

The war had ended as we had never believed possible; all the days of 
agonizing suspense our wives, mothers, sisters, and sweethearts had en- 
dured, while their loved ones were hourly exposed to deadly danger, the 
nights of sleepless anxiety, wishing yet dreading for the morning — all 
the privations, self-denials, losses, had been in vain. All the precious 
lives had been sacrificed, and defeat at last, overcome by overwhelming 
numbers. Desolation met our eyes all around. What was lurking 
among us. The earth seemed turned upside down, and chaos seemed to 
reign. 

But not long did North Carolina lie weeping in the dust. 'Twas not 
in her nature. She gathered herself up and went to work again. 

But though our generation may not realise it, I believe we can see the 
dawning of a new day, and our children will be better and nobler men 



of the Confederacy 23 

and women for all we have gone through and we will be able to under- 
stand that the war was not in vain." 



Miss Alice Campbell, another young woman active in the war-work 
of Fayetteville, gives an account of the "Return of the Bethel Horses" of 
Cumberland County and the welcome they received from the citizens of 
this old Scotch settlement. 

"Our military companies, the honored old Fayetteville Independent 
Light Infantry, (with their motto emblazoned on their flag, "He that 
hath no stomach to this fight let him depart") and the LaFayette Light 
Infantry, with ranks full of true men, were coming home after their en- 
listment for the first six months of the war. We women, thinking this 
was the end of the war, had been making preparations for two weeks to 
welcome our boys home. Oh, the happy hearts and the tears of joy that 
were shed over our dear boys in Gray, who had returned in safety to 
their loved ones. This was of short duration, for every one of them went 
into the service again, and the terrible struggle began in earnest. 

"We women, spun, wove, and knit thousands of socks and gloves for 
our soldiers. (Note : Miss Campbell used the same knitting needles for 
the boys of the World War, that she used for the boys in Gray. She 
was the president of the Young Woman's Knitting Society in the sixties.) 

I had a calico dress for State occasions for which I paid ten dollars a 
yard and shoes that cost one hundred dollars a pair, we paid ten dollars 
a pound for sugar and tea, and later it could not be bought for any price. 
The women were busy from early morning till dewy eve. 

As the years passed so slowly and our forces were being diminished 
daily our faith was still firm that victory would at last be ours." 



Early in the war a number of ladies of Fayetteville formed the "Cum- 
berland County War Association." The minutes of this organization 
show a wonderful amount of work accomplished, as it included as- 
sistance to the needy families of the soldiers at the front. Many valuable 
contributions from adjoining counties were received and dispensed by 
the women of Cumberland. 

A large amount of socks was dispensed through the association con- 
tributed by the "Young Ladies Knitting Society" and the "Juvenile Knit- 



24 T^orth Carolina 'Women 

ting Society." The children were not idle in doing their bit. The girls- 
from ten to thirteen years old knitted socks and, if they didn't finish at 
least one pair every two weeks, they were fined ten cents. Two little 
boys belonged to this society and each one knitted a pair of socks every 
two weeks. 



Letter From the Front 

This unique letter is an expression of appreciation from the "boys in 
gray:" 

"Camp near Petersburg, 

"February 16th, 1864. 

"The members of the third company Battalion, Washington Artillery 
of New Orleans, embrace this opportunity of tendering to the "Young 
Ladies Knitting Society" of Fayetteville, N. C, their thanks for the recent 
present of sixtyfive pair of socks. 

"Exiled from home as we are, and debarred by the exigencies of war 
from the attention and care of the loved ones at home such attentions are 
peculiarly gratifying and when the grim visage war shall hide his wrink- 
led front and halycon days of peace shall have returned to bless our dis- 
tracted country, we shall tell our mothers and sisters of their goodness 
and they will unite us in thanking them. 

"For all the soc\s the maids have made, 

Our than\s for all the brave, 
And honored be your pious trade. 

The soldiers sole to save." 



Women of Wilmington 



"And all we \now is that they gave 
A sweetness to the days now dead, 
For they were \ind and they were brave. 



Mrs. Armand J. DeRosset, of Wilmington, (born Eliza Lord) was 
one of our women of the sixties who was endowed with such administra- 



of the Confederacy 25 

tive ability that it was often said of her "She should have been a general." 
Under her direction the Soldiers Aid Society was early organized, and 
for four years did its work with unabated energy. While her six sons 
were fighting, Mrs. DeRosset assisted her husband in his medical work, 
nursing the sick, being keenly active to the needy. With the valuable 
assistance of the women of Wilmington, (especially Mrs. Alfred Martin 
who was Vice-President) large supplies were made and kept on hand. 
Canvas bags were made to be filled with sand and used in the fortifica- 
tions at Fort Fisher. Canteens were covered, haversacks made, also 
cartridges for rifles, and powder bags for the great columbiads were made 
by the hundreds. 

Mrs. DeRosset had a large room in her own home fittted up a» a 
store room, seizing every chance to secure supplies through the blocade. 
Many a soldier blessed these women for comforts bestowed on them. 
Men still live who treasure the War Bibles given them, as among their 
most valuable possessions. 

Mrs. DeRosset "s ability to overcome difficulties in getting all she 
needed for the men was the constant wonder of those who assisted her. 
The following is an incident of her executive power. 

After the first attack of Fort Fisher the garrison, in great peril, was 
to be reinforced with Junior Reserves. The wires brought the news 
that in a few hours they would arrive, hungry and footsore. Mrs. 
DeRosset was asked if the ladies could feed them, the ready reply came, 
"Of course we can." And through the energy and resource of herself 
and assistants, she proved equal to the task. 

They nursed through the harrowing scenes of hospital life, and ten- 
derly buried the dead. When all was over this band of faithful women, 
in July, '66, organized a permanent memorial association with the pur- 
pose of rescuing from oblivion the names and graves of the gallant sol- 
diers who are buried in and near Wilmington. 

The sick soldiers in the hospital at Fort Fisher were supplied with 
nourishing food and nursed by women who corageously remained there. 
The wife of Major Stevenson and her sister, Mrs. Mary F. Sanders, were 
among those who helped to make these Confederates more comfortable, 
though in constant personal danger themselves. The Soldier's Aid So- 
ciety in Wilmington did a wonderful work for this hospital, supplying 
clothes, covering and quantities of provisions. 



26 T^lorth Carolina Women 

When Wilmington was occupied by the Yankees the Rev. A. A. 
Watson was ordered to change the prayer of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church for the Confederate States and to pray for the President of the 
United States instead of the President of the Confederate States. This 
the rector refused to do. Whereupon Genral Schofeld seised the Church 
buildings, had all the pews and the pulpit torn out and removed, and the 
building converted into a hospital. Also the Methodist church on Front 
street was seised and turned over to a negro congregation. 

It was on Ash- Wednesday that the Yankees turned the congregation 
out of St. James Episcopal church. The following lines (the 79th Psalm) 
were written on that day in the Bible of Mrs. William Lord. "The 
heathen have entered our land they have spoiled our heritage, they have 
closed the doors of our sanctuary, shut the mouths of our prophets, de' 
spoiled us of our privileges, refused to obey the voice of God who haa 
said — 'Call the people together proclaim a solemn feast; our people weep, 
the ministers sigh.' And our cry is O Lord subdue our enemies, restore 
unto us our poor suffering stricken servants, the blessed means of grace 
and let not our sins cry for vengeance against us. Give us grace and 
faith to have submission to Thy holy will and so improve these sore af- 
flictions that they tend to Thy honor and glory and the good of our 
immortal souls. Amen. Eliza Hill Lord." 



Mrs. Robert H. Cowan, of Wilmington, suffered a most thrilling ex- 
perience while refugeeing near Laurinburg. Surrounded by Yankees, 
with two of her children at the point of death, she was subjected to every 
conceivable indignity. They pulled the rings from her fingers while 
holding her sick child and kicked the cradle of the other one with the 
brutal remark, "That one is dead already," while he rested his loaded 
gun against Mrs. Cowan's chair. The gang of marauders yelling and 
cursing slapped the face of the aged grandmother as he pulled the watch 
chain from her neck. Another ruffian threw his arm around a young 
daughter, saying he had just come out of the penitentiary, which they 
could well believe. With the sick babies, Mrs. Cowan, with her mother 
and young daughters (afterwards Mrs. Junius Davis, James I. Metts, and 
Louis DeRosset) escaped during the night to an old hut, where they lay 
hid while the negro regiments and greater part of Sherman's army 



of the Confederacy Tt 

passed. Just the terrible experiences of this one family would be suf' 
ficient to show what the women of the '60's endured. 



Capt. S. A. Ashe in his Monumental History of North Carolina, gives 
many pathetic incidents of the hopes and fears of the women of our 
State during this critical and heartrending period. His story of North 
Carolina as a scene of warfare in the Confederacy is of gripping interest 
and from it we have a vivid picture of those days when the women be- 
hind the lines showed their unflinching bravery. Capt. Ashe mentions 
the fact that Sherman in a letter to his wife, December 16, 1864, (taken 
from the Great March) by Sherman's Aide-de-camp Major Nichols, 
said: "We came right along, living on turkeys, chickens, pigs, bringing 
along our wagons loaded as they started with bread, etc. I suppose Jeff 
Davis will have to feed the people of Georgia now instead of collecting 
provisions of them to feed his armies. 

"The amount of burning, stealing and plundering of our army makes 
one feel ashamed of it." 

Major Nichols goes on to say in the Story of the Great March, "Al- 
most every inch of ground in the vicinity of the dwellings was poked by 
ramrods, pierced by sabres or upturned by spades. It was comical to 
see a group of red bearded veterans punching the unoffending earth. 
Nothing escaped the observation of the sharp witted soldiers." 

Capt. Ashe tells of a visit of General Sherman, while in Fayetteville 
in March '65, at the home of Colonel Frederick Childs, the commadant 
of the Arsenal. There resided the Colonel's sister Jennie, Mrs. Ander- 
son and his aged mother, from whose house at Fortress Monroe Sherman 
had been married. The venerable lady was somewhat afflicted with 
palsy. When the General entered he said: "Ah, this is no place for 
you. You must go to General Woodbury's (one of her daughters was 
the wife of the distinguished engineer General Woodbury of the United 
States Army). I am sorry to see you here. But as to that dam little 
Fred Childs — if I catch him I'll hang him as high as Haman." And, 
then, in a wild burst of passion, he exclaimed: "I come through now 
creating devastation. If that does not answer I will come through with 
fire and sword, and slay the people and leave desolation; and then if 
they do not submit, I will come through again, and leave nothing alive 



28 Worth Carolina Women 

and sow the ground with salt." And the palsied widow of General 
Childs looked on aghast in horror at the spectacle. 



The Yankee troopers came upon the home of Mrs. Duncan Murchi- 
son in Cumberland County and in spite of protests, burst in the room 
of a young girl, who was in the last stages of typhoid fever, the child 
was taken from the bed in which she lay and died while the bed and the 
room were being seached for money and jewelry. Although over seventy 
years old Mr. Murchison, in spite of the pleadings of the women of his 
family, was dragged half clad to the near-by swamps, where he was com- 
pelled to stay until the raiders had left. Every act of Vandalism was 
committed on this plantation, but the Murchison women bore it all with 
heroic fortitude. 



Mrs. John McDaniel of Cumberland County not only had her home 
burned by these soldiers but her husband was carried out into the wods 
and hanged to a tree in order to make him give up secrets of his valu- 
ables. His death was prevented by some of his faithful servants and 
family, who rescued him from this terrible fate. 

The home of Mrs. Thomas McDaniel in this same community was 
also burned after the soldiers had taken it as their sleeping place for the 
night, this was certainly a very ungracious way of returning "hospitali- 
ty" (?)■ Both of these homes were ransacked and the furniture and all 
valuables demolished or stolen. The Yankees as they set fire to this 
residence were heard to exclaim exultingly: "Well we've burnt up an- 
other home of a d rich old rebel." 



A most unusual tribute is given to a plucky woman of the sixties of 
Wake County, being an inscription on her tombstone. She lies buried 
in a little churchyard at Fuquay Springs, near Raleigh. This is the 
inscription : 



of the Confederacy 29 

"Here lies Mrs. Eliza Ann Jones, 
A devoted Christian Mother, 
Who whipped Shermans bummers 
While trying to ta\e her dinner 
Pot, which contained a hamhone being 
Coo\ed for her soldier'boy ." 



Women of Old Hillsboro 



"There's a pedestal high in the hall of my heart, 
For the Women of Dixie Land, 
Who nobly and proudly played their part, 
With a courage superbly grand." 



The women of Hillsboro were among the most active of our State. 
The late Col. Benehan Cameron loved to recall how as a little boy on his 
pony he would assist his mother, Mrs. Paul Cameron, an ardent South' 
erner and daughter of the distinguished Thomas Ruffin, in acting as 
messenger boy for the Ladies Aid Society. Though too young to enter 
the army (which he longed to do) this youngster did his part and always 
felt that he belonged to the Veterans 

Miss Rebecca Cameron (Honorary Historian of the North Carolina 
Division U. D. C.) gives this glimpse of the women's work in Hillsboro 
during the war: 

"Mrs. William A. Graham, (wife of ex-Governor Graham,) who 
gave five sons to the Confederacy, was president of the soldier's aid SO' 
ciety of Orange County. I think Mrs. Kate Roulhac (daughter of Hon. 
Paul Cameron) was vice-president, and Miss Annie Roulhac was the sec- 
retary. Our records were all kept in the Court House, and when the 
Yankees came they burned all of them. The aid society used to meet 
every week at the Court House and work for the soldiers and their de- 
pendent families. A committee was formed of which my mother, Mrs. 
William Cameron, was chairman and executive, of ladies who would 
send food for the troop trains as they passed by the Hillsboro depot. A 
committee of ladies would go to the depot with their servants and board 



30 7<iorth Carolina Women 

the train, and feed the men who had their tin cups and plates in their 
haversacks. Mr. Tom Webb was president of the North Carolina Rail' 
road, and he gave us a standing pass for all the trains passing here. After 
much experience of the difficulties of the work, my mother devised the 
plan of going down to Morrisviile on the train going east, and feeding 
the men on board, then getting off at Morrisviile with baskets, papers, 
etc., going into the waiting room and there making the divisions into 
separate bundles, and on our way back to Hillsboro giving the packages 
to the men on board. These men were generally sick and wounded, 
though sometimes they were being transferred to other places or com' 
mands. Hillsboro soon became known as a feeding station, and the con' 
ductors would tell us how eagerly the men would inquire when they 
would reach this town. Mrs. W. A. Graham always sent her carriage 
and her servant to carry us to the depot and back home. Our horses 
had gone into the service with father's battery, THE ORANGE LIGHT 
ARTILLERY. A four-gun battery was made out of the bells of the 
Episcopal, Presbyterian, and Baptist churches. These bells were sent to 
the Tredefon iron works in Richmond to be cast into cannon. They were 
said to be the finest metal sent to the iron works. 

My oldest brother, Donald Moore Cameron, enlisted at the age of 
fourteen, in father's battery. 

In the midst of the sorrow and the work for our soldiers, when the 
men came home on furlough or were stationed near us, we girls laughed, 
danced, rode and sang with our boys. We bore ourselves with a gay 
high courage, though often we were starving at home, even as they were 
starving at the front." 



Another glimpse of Hillsboro in the sixties is given me by that dis- 
tinguished Christian educator of today, Mrs. Lucy H. Robertson, of 
Greensboro, whose mother, Mrs. {Catherine Watkins Owen, was active 
in the soldiers aid society of Hillsboro. Mrs. Robertson says, "I was a 
very young girl in Hillsboro at the time of the war, though old enough 
to be interested m what was going on. Hillsboro was intensely south' 
em in its sympathies, and every woman seemed to be doing all in her 
power to help the beloved cause. The Soldiers Aid Society was very 



of the Confederacy 3 1 

active in all kinds of war work, sewing garments, knitting socks, furnish- 
ing food, looking after the sick, or wounded soldiers passing by this little 
town on the trains going by daily. Committees of ladies took turns in 
carrying coffee, buttermilk, and other things suitable for the convales' 
cents or others able to leave the hospitals and return to their homes. I 
used to go with my mother and her committee, and was very proud to be 
permitted to pour the buttermilk into tin cups so eagerly held out by the 
weak and trembling hands to receive the refreshing drinks. They all 
seemed so appreciative of these little attentions — so pitifully little com- 
pared to their great sacrifice. Another little service I, and other young 
people, were permitted to render was converting our mother's table and 
bed linens into lint to go to the hospitals, for our women were always 
alert to everything that might alleviate the sufferings of our soldiers. 
Many were the boxes packed in Hillsboro by that Aid Society to go to 
the front to add something to the comfort of our brave men. As I re- 
member her, my mother was a tireless worker, with many other of like 
spirit in all these activities." 



Women of Goldsboro 

"Hurrah, hurrah, for southern rights, hurrah.'' 



The women of Goldsboro saw war from early in 1862, and were active 
in their soldiers aid hospital work. A wayside hospital was established 
here, and the women were organized in committees for nursing. Gen- 
eral Gatlin established his headquarters at Goldsboro, so the girls of the 
town enjoyed the society of the young Confederates in his command. 

Several battles were fought around this section. First the battle of 
Kinston, December '62, when the Federals were endeavoring to capture 
Goldsboro, (where was won the last Confederate victory in the war), 
then the fight of Whitehall not far from Goldsboro; then General Fos- 
ter's raid on Goldsboro itself. The result of all this fighting was to fill 
Goldsboro with many wounded soldiers, and every available place in the 
city was used by the women. The female college of Goldsboro, over- 



'■3 Worth Carolina Women 

flowed with the sick and wounded, the young girls assisting the older 
ones in their tender administrations. 

The town was again occupied by the Federals when Sherman's army 
was around Bentonville after that battle. Here was enacted the same acts 
of destruction as characterized all of Sherman's march. 

Mrs. John Slocumb of Goldsboro, one of the "true and tried" said 
that it was heart-rending to daily see crowds of country women with 
their babies in their arms coming into town to beg food and shelter, after 
Sherman's raid. Sherman himself, ordered from his home (so that he 
might occupy it) an aged citizen with a family of eighteen children and 
grandchildren, most of them females. 



Washington Women 



A "Military Sewing Society" was formed on the 23 rd of April, 1861, 
by the women of Washington, N. C, with Miss M. M. Hoyt as presi- 
dent and Miss Margaret De Mille, secretary. Resolutions were adopted 
and sent to the Captain of each company of their county to confer with 
the ladies as to the most efficient and immediate services they could ren- 
der and, Resolved, "That the ladies highly approve of the course the gen- 
tlemen have pursued in so promptly responding to the needs of their 
country and preparing to fight her battles." 

The following note to Captain Spannor shows the solicitude of these 
women. 

'Should there still be members of your company not suitably provided 
for you will very much oblige the ladies by making known to them their 
wants and we will take great pleasure in giving them our prompt at- 
tention. 

"Yours with great respect, Sir. 

M. M. Hoyt." 

The following incident is in a letter of General W. A. Blount of 
Beaufort, written by his nephew Captain Roman of Washington, N. C, 
he says: 

"A great many, perhaps 300, of the Georgia regiment are sick with 
measles and typhoid fever. About six hospitals have been taken charge 



of the Confederacy 33 

of by the ladies, who tend the sick and spare no pains. Aunt (the late 
Miss Patsy B. Blount) has taken three into her house, and nurses them 
constantly. She generally has six soldiers to eat with her — I believe she 
would give them her last rag of clothes — and the other ladies are not 
much behind her. The rooms of Miss Fannie Owen are used as a hos- 
pital." 



Women of Mecklenburg County 

(Where last meeting of Confederate Cabinet was held) 



"Hold up your heads, indulge no fears, 

For Dixie swarms with volunteers. 

Fight away, fight away, fight away in Dixie Land." 



As the tales of suffering poured in from the various encampments, 
rousing the mothers, wives and sweethearts to make themselves useful 
in this great crisis, the women of Charlotte, on August 28th, '61, formed 
an asociation for relief and aid, (composed of sixtyfive ladies) called 
the "Soldier's Aid Society of Charlotte," adopting a formal constitution, 
which is a most interesting document. The meetings were held in a room 
given by Mrs. J. H. Carson. The number of garments made during the 
first year was over three hundred, which was a large amount when most 
of the work was by hand. This society distributed thousands of dollars 
worth of goods, not only to the soldiers in the field but for their destitute 
families at home. In writing of this work Mrs. M. A. Osborne (one of 
the officers of this Soldier's Aid Society) says, "May the light diffused 
more abundant grow, for the glory dies not as the grief is past.' Out 
of this society later in the sixties was formed the Ladies Memorial Asso- 
ciation, with Mrs. Osborne president, and Mrs. John Morehead, secre- 
tary. This beautiful service to our Confederate dead has been carried 
on by the daughters of these patriotic women. 

There was a Confederate Hospital on South Tryon Street, in Char- 
lotte, on the site of the old fair grounds, which buildings were used to 
care for the wounded soldiers in the spring of '65. Many died there 



J4 T^orth Carolina Women 

and were buried in the old field back of the fair grounds. Some time 
afterwards, Mrs. John Wilkes superintended the removal of their bodies 
to a spot in Elmwood Cemetery. 

A meeting of the Confederate Cabinet was held at the home of Mr. 
and Mrs. Wm. F. Phifer. Mrs. Phifer was hostess to General Beaure' 
gard and his staff while they were in Charlotte in the spring of '65, and 
owing to the illness of Mr. Trenholm, Secretary of the Treasury, who 
was also a guest in this home, the cabinet meeting was held at her home. 

Mrs. Phifer kept open house during the war, and was active in every 
work for the Confederacy, many notables being entertained in her beauti- 
ful home. 

Mrs. Wm. White, of Charlotte, not only gave her six sons for the 
Confederacy, but gave of herself and her means to the cause. She was 
hostess to President Jefferson Davis, and his escorts, during .their stay 
in Charlotte, when they met to consult at to the best course to pursue 
on their way to South Carolina. The home of Mrs. White is also one 
of the notable sights of the "Queen City." 

Charlotte being away from the seat of war and not in the path of 
invaders did not bear the brunt of the Yankee army as did most of the 
larger towns farther east or south. However, two military companies, 
the Hornet's Nest and the Grays kept the girls in a state of excitement 
with preparations for joining the Bethel regiment. The Cadets of Col. 
D. H. Hill's Military Institute at Charlotte were busy drilling recruits 
from the adjoining counties and the Sixth Regiment was encamped there. 
So the women had their time and thoughts full in work for the soldiers. 
Charlotte was considered a safe place from the Yankees, so constantly 
people from all over the lower part of North Carolina and South Caro- 
lina began to flock there as a haven of refuge. This gave added duties 
for the women of this fine community. 

One of the splendid women of Charlotte was Mrs. Robert Burwell, 
(Margaret Robertson) who not only gave her six sons to the Con- 
federacy, but performed a most important work, that of keeping her 
boarding school open (the Charlotte Female Institute) through the entire 
four years of the war. In addition to her large houseful of pupils Mrs. 
Burwell extended her limits to their utmost capacity to receive the girl 
refugees, who sought safety from an invading army. Her sympathetic 
nature welcomed the strangers, and many still recall with gratitude the. 



of the Confederacy 3 5 

peaceful haven they found in her home. With all her duties in 
her school, Mrs. Burwell found time to minister to the needy- 
families of soldiers and to work for the soldiers in the army. As a 
teacher this woman of the sixties ranked high and the part she took in 
keeping up the standard of education in the period of war deserves to 
be remembered, for her influence on every student left its mark toward 
the betterment of the State. 

This Spartan Mother, when two of her sons gave up their lives, illus- 
trated "how sublime a thing it is to suffer and be strong," and renewed 
her services for others. 



The aid society of Wadesboro was composed of some of North 
Carolina's most ardent women of the Confederacy, with Mrs. 
Jesse Edwards as president, and Miss Kate Shepherd (afterwards 
the wife of Colonel Risden Tyler Bennett) secretary. They 
and the other members went all over Anson county solicit' 
ing wool for knitting. They also gave magic lantern shows for funds 
for the society, going from town to town. When Sherman's army passed 
through Wadesboro these women exhibited the courage that character- 
ized all of our North Carolina women. The wife of Bishop Atkinson 
who was refugeeing there tied her husbands boots inside her hoopskirt, 
and thus saved them for him. Miss Fan Beverly grabbed a freshly 
boiled ham and held it tightly during the Yankee raid. Mrs. Bennett 
in her exasperation, extinguished a blaze started on their fine old side- 
board, while at the Richardson home one of the daughters tied her broth- 
er's Masonic apron in front of his clothes and manager to save much. 



The women of Louisburg and Franklin county were not behind the 
other women of North Carolina in real patriotism, and self-sacrifice, for 
they gave freely of their heart's dearest treasures. They gave more sol- 
diers to the Confederacy than there were voters in the county, eleven full 
companies. Through the Soldier's Aid Society the women of Louis- 
burg never flagged in their service for their boys in gray, working early 
and late. 

Judge Francis Winston, of Windsor, recalls an incident of the wo- 



36 Tvforth Carolina Women 

men's work in Franklin county, and the part he took in it as a small boy : 
"I remember during the war the constant sewing and knitting that 
my mother, (Mrs. Patrick Winston) had carried on and did herself in 
Franklin county where we refugeed and the articles were sent from there 
to the front. It's a pleasant memory to recall that I was very anxious to 
send a box of pop-corn to my uncle after the battle of Gettysburg, and 
how earnestly my mother undertook to dissuade me from doing so, but 
she finally yielded to my importunities and the large box of pop-corn, 
more than a bushel, was sent. You can imagine my great joy upon 
receipt of a letter from my uncle telling my mother that "Frank's pop- 
corn came in fine shape and good time. My men had been without food 
for a day and a half and the pop-corn was all they had for another day. 
I doubt if such another scene was ever witnessed in any war as that night 
when Company C. and others of the regiment were busy around the 
fire light popping and eating this corn." " 

Louisburg has the honor of claiming the woman who made the first 
Stars and Bars Flag, which was designed by Orren R. Smith. She was 
Mrs. Rebecca Winborne, whom the Division has remembered with a 
monument on which is carved the "Stars and Bars" of the Confederacy. 
"There's a place in my heart for the stainless gray, for the Flag of the 
Stars and Bars." 



of the Confederacy 37 



BLOCKADE RUNNING INTO WILMINGTON 



The Chase of the Blockade Runner 

Freed from the lingering chase, in devious ways 

Upon the swelling tides 

Swiftly the runner glides 

Through hostile shells and eager foeman past; 

The lynx-eyed pilot gazing through the haze 

And engines straining, "far hope dawns at last." 

T^jow falls in billows deep the welcome night 

Upon white sands below; 

While signal lamps aglow 

See\ out Fort Fisher's distant answering gleams, 

The blockade runner's \een, supreme delight — 

Dear Dixie Land, the haven of our dreamsl 

— Dr. James Sprunt, Wilmington, T 1 ^. C. 



There were many thrilling incidents during the war when the women 
of North Carolina proved themselves real heroines. One of these was 
Mrs. Louis H. De Rosset of Wilmington, a brave and charming woman. 
She with her infant daughter Gabrielle, were passengers on the noted 
blockade runner, Lynx, which was commanded by Captain Reed, one 
of the most daring spirits of the service. On the evening of September 
26th, she attempted to run the blockade at New Inlet. She was immedi* 
ately discovered by the Federal cruiser Niphon, which fired several broad- 
sides at her, nearly every shot striking the hull and seriously disabling her. 
Captain Reed was almost escaping his pursurers, notwithstanding all this, 
but was again intercepted by the Federal men of war. Mrs. De Rosset 
and baby were put in the wheel house for safety, but here they were 
exposed to great danger, cannon balls passing close by them, so our 
heroine flew to the cabin with her baby. 



38 Worth Carolina Women 

As the vessel commenced sinking, Captain Reed, concerned for his 
passengers, headed for the beach. The sea was very rough that night 
and the treacherous breakers, with their deafening roar, afforded little 
hope of landing a woman and a baby through the surf, nevertheless it 
was. the only alternative, and right bravely did this heroine meet it. 
Through the breakers the Lynx was driven to her^ destination. Boats 
were lowered with great difficulty, the sea dashing over the bulwarks 
and drenching sailors to the point of strangulation. 

Mrs. De Rosset, with the utmost coolness, watched her chance, while 
the boat lurched and pounded against the stranded ship, and jumped to 
her place. The baby, wrapped in a blanket, was tossed from the deck 
to her mother ten feet below. And then the fight for a landing began. 
The whole crew, forgetful of their own danger, and inspired with cour- 
age by this brave lady's example, joined in three hearty cheers as she 
disappeared with her baby in the darkness toward shore. 

Under the glare of the burning ship, a safe landing was made, but 
with great suffering. Soaking wet, without food or drink, they remained 
on the beach until an ambulance from Fort Fisher was sent to carry them 
twenty miles up to Wilmington. 

The baby blockade runner (little Gabrielle) is now the charming Mrs. 
A. M. Waddell, president of the N. C. Society Colonial Dames. So 
she, and her brave mother, deserve to have their names recorded among 
North Carolina's heroic women of the Sixties. 



Mrs. Josiah (Laura) Pender of Tarboro, was another young woman 
who exhibited remarkable courage in running the blocade. She was re- 
turning from Burmuda to Wilmington on the ship of which her husband 
was Captain, when a Federal gunboat fired upon the little blockade run- 
ner. The commander was on the point of surrendering, seeing the un- 
equal fight, but the young wife declared that she would go out on deck 
and expose herself to the shot and shell, if he surrendered. It is ned- 
less to say Captain Pender surrendered to his wife and not to the Tan' 
\ee commander. The Confederate runner made its port and its valuable 
cargo for the Confederacy was saved through the courageous act of this 
young woman. 



of the Confederacy 39 

Mrs. Greenhow, Celebrated Spy 



"And for those that lament them there is this relief, 
That glory sits by the side of grief." 



Though not a North Carolina woman by birth, yet the story of Mrs. 
Rosa Greenhow, the noted Confederate spy, of Washington City, is so 
closely linked with this State that we place her on the honor roll of our 
heroic women of North Carolina. 

Mrs. Greenhow was a celebrated beauty, who rendered valuable ser' 
vice for the Confederacy in secret service work, rceiving highest praise 
from the Confederate Government. The ingenuity shown and the dar- 
ing of this clever and corageous woman in getting through the lines im' 
portant dispatches make one of the most interesting chapters in the story 
of the Confederacy. After serving so bravely Mrs. Greenhow was final- 
ly arrested and imprisoned in Washington City with her little girl, who 
showed the spirit of her mother when she told the officer in charge, "You 
have got here one of the worst little rebels you ever saw." Through 
much difficulty Mrs. Greenhow was released on account of the extreme 
illness of her daughter and she again began her secret service work. On 
the night of September 30th, 1864, the blockade runner Condor on which 
she was a passenger, arrived at the mouth of the Cape Fear River, trying 
to reach the port of Wilmington. Seeing that they were to be attacked 
by a Federal gunboat, Mrs. Greenhow asked to be put ashore in a small 
boat, for she had hidden on her person important papers for President 
Jefferson Davis, and she knew the danger of capture. As fate would 
have it, the little boat capsized and Rosa Greenhow went to her death, 
for around her body was much gold that weighted her down. The next 
day her body was washed ashore. She was buried by the women of 
Wilmington, with the Confederate Flag wrapped around her casket, in 
Oakwood cemetery. The important messages that she was guarding with 
her life were sent on to President Davis. 

The grave of this beautiful heroine has been marked with a marble 
cross by the Ladies Memorial Association of Wilmington, and the name 
of Rosa Greenhow will ever be remembered in North Carolina. 



40 T^orth Carolina "Women 



WOMEN IN NURSING AND HOSPITAL WORK 



"When pain and anguish wring the brow, 
A ministering angel thou." 



One of the brave self-sacrificing women of North Carolina who gave 
her services in nursing the sick and wounded was Mrs. Jesse (Annie K.) 
Kyle. 

Having suffered the agony of having her husband under fire at Morris 
Island (with the Immortal 600) she offered her services (without pay) 
as head nurse at the hospital in Fayetteville. Mrs. Kyle, though a frail 
woman on crutches, had the indomitable spirit of a lion, working un' 
tiringly from morning 'til night dressing wounds, nursing the sick, sooth' 
ing and comforting the dying with Holy prayers. 

Mrs. Kyle has left a most graphic reminiscence of Fayetteville at 
this time, in which she says: 

"They were bringing the wounded from Fort Fisher, Wilmington and 
other points. We already had one hospital and were establishing an' 
other. I shall never forget the doctor's look of amazement when I ap' 
plied for the situation. My reply was: "Doctor I don't want any pay, 
but I must have constant occupation or I will lose my mind." I went 
every morning at nine o'clock and stayed until one, and I always went 
late in the afternoon to see that the wants of the patients were attended 
during the night. I always dressed all the wounds every morning, and 
I soon found that my grief and sorrow were forgotten in administering 
to the wants of the sick. Such patience and fortitude I have never seen. 
Not one murmur did I ever hear escape the lips. My Prayer Book was 
my constant companion. I carried it in my pocket and many poor sol- 
diers have I soothed and comforted with Holy prayers. One day as I 
entered the hospital I noticed a new face. I made my way to him as I 
was struck by his gray hair, and said: "You are too old to be here." He 
smiled and his answer was quite a rebuke: "One never gets too old to 
fight for ones home and fireside. I had no sons so I came myself." 



of the Confederacy • 41 

Often there were soldiers desperately ill with fever and other diseases, 
so the Young Ladies' Seminary on Hay Street in Fayetteville, was fitted 
up as a hospital, where they could be cared for. The three floors were 
arranged to accomodate the patients who were brought in from the dif' 
ferent localities, many of them sick, some convalescing from typhoid fever 
and some wounded. Each ward or floor was presided over by four 
ladies who attended to their wants giving medicine, nourishment, etc., 
also reading to them, writing to their absent loved ones, and making them 
as comfortable as possible, the doctor generally dressing their wounds. 

The hospital became crowded so another was fitted up and it soon 
became full of patients. 

Many of the younger women assisted the older ones in caring for the 
sick soldiers, daily carrying flowers and delicacies, singing and cheering 
them with sunny smiles. 

This service of the women of the Confederacy made what amends 
were possible for the pitiful absence of anesthetics. 

After Sherman's memorable visit to Fayetteville, March 11, '65, a 
Marine Hospital on Green Street was established. The meals for the sick 
soldiers in the hospital were supplied by the different ladies of the town, 
who took turns in sending them, several ladies being a committee on each 
day. It was very difficult to get medicine for the hospitals — all that 
reached Fayetteville being brought in by the blockade runner "Advance." 
Most of the medicine used was quinine, which was very precious, but 
some medicines were made from herbs gathered from woods. 

On the eleventh of March Sherman with his hordes of depraved and 
lawless men came upon us bringing sorrow and desolation. I can never 
forget the terrible scene on that memorable morning, with General Wade 
Hampton commanding the Confederate forces. 

About nine o'clock they sent for me to go to the hospital, and the hor' 
rible scene I witnessed there I shall never forget. The wounded had 
been brought in from Longstreet battle, where a portion of Hardee's men 
had had an engagement with Sherman's men. I stayed with them till 
just before daylight and did all I could to relieve their wants. Even then 
I did not hear a single murmur. Such fortitude has 7{0 PARALLEL 
IH HISTORY. 

O! THE HORRORS OF THOSE DAYS! It is impossible to write 
or tell what we endured, and it will never be known until we stand be- 



Al - Jiprth Carolina Women 

fore the Judgment Seat of God. After the fall of Harper's Ferry the 
families and workmen were removed to Fayetteville, in consequence of 
which a number of handsome dwellings were added to the Arsenal 
grounds. It was a lovely spot and we justly felt proud of it. But 
Sherman's torch reduced it to ashes. Fayetteville suffered more than 
most towns, for we had five cotton factories in the town and one at 
Rockfish just a few miles away, and they were all burned to the ground, 
leaving hundreds of people without work or any means of getting bread. 
And as we had been robbed of all we had, of course, we could not help 
them. As soon as night came on we could see fires in every direction, 
as all the buildings in the country were burned. I can compare it with 
nothing but what I can imagine Hades would be if its awful doors were 
thrown open. But for the kindness of my servants I don't know what 
would have become of me. They were very faithful. One walked up 
and down the passage all night and the other stayed on the back porch. 
Still I was afraid to close my eyes. But for my nurse we would not 
have had one mouthful to eat. She hid some things in her own room 
and in that way saved them. 

The Yankees went into homes that were beautiful, rolled elegant pi' 
anos into the yard with valuable furniture, china, cut glass, and every 
thing that was dear to the heart, even old family portraits and chopped 
them up with axes — rolled barrels of flour and molasses into the parlors, 
and poured out their contents on beautiful carpets — in many cases set 
fire to lovely homes and burned them to the ground, and even took some 
of our citizens and hung them until their life was near extinct, to force 
them to tell them where their money was hidden; when alas! they had 
none to hide. 

After Sherman left, our hospitals which had not been very full were 
filled to overflowing. They came in with various diseases and wounds 
inumerable, while typhoid fever also prevailed. Every lady in town who 
could,gave up her time to nursing and caring for the dear brave boys. We 
gave them medicine and took them flowers and wrote letters to their dear 
ones, who were far away from them, read to them, and did every thing 
possible to cheer and help them. Oh! how sad it was to see them suffer, 
and pass away so far from those they loved — and during their illness 
how they watched and waited day after day, for the letters from home 
that never came. 



of the Confederacy 43 

One morning I had a message from the upper hospital asking me to 
come. I got there in time to close the eyes of seven soldiers, then I went 
to the Mayor and got a permit for a coffin and a hearse, then Mrs. Guion 
and I with two of the men from the hospital followed their remains to 
the place where we had been burying the soldiers. 

Just a few days after Sherman's army crossed the Cape Fear River I 
went to a few of my gentlemen friends and raised sufficient money to 
buy coffins and to have thirty graves dug. I had the six bodies in the 
hospital yard and the others buried where they camped disinterred, mak- 
ing twelve in all. Mayor McLean went to the cemetery with me to 
select a spot where we could have them all buried together. We could 
not get a square large enough to hold them all, so he gave us the back 
part of the cemetery, overlooking Cross Creek, a very pretty situation 
with room for all, and a place large enough left to place the monument. 
Eighteen were buried in a field across the creek and we had them all taken 
up, and just at sunset Dr. Huske, beloved Rector of St. John's Church, 
read again the words: "I am the resurrection and the life," the coffins 
were lowered to their resting place, and the souls of the dead entered 
into the rest of Paradise until they should arise to meet the Lord and 
Saviour." 



The Women at Our State Capital 



"Whose courage unhro\en, whose sorrow unspo\en, 
Thrilled a cheer and a hope to the boys in gray." 



The women of Raleigh from the very beginning of the war, when the 
North Carolina soldiers were encamped there for training, had greater 
opportunity for service to our boys than any other town in the State. 
When Doctor Charles Johnston, head of the State Medical Department, 
called for volunteers among the women to nurse in the North Carolina 
hospitals in Petersburg, Va., a Raleigh woman, Miss M. L. Pettigrew, 
was among the three women chosen for this great service. 

A wayside hospital was established here and later other hospitals were 
opened and were constantly filled with soldiers brought here from many 



44 X[orih Carolina Women 

points. The Pettigrew hospital was where is now the State Soldiers' 
Home. The old Guion hotel and the churches were filled with the 
wounded, the unfinished building of Peace Institute was turned into a 
hospital and many of the private homes were used to care for these men 
brought in on every train. How these women rescued their dead sol' 
diers who were thrown in a field by the Yankees and began their 
Memorial Association is told further on in this chronicle. 

The women or Raleigh endured the terror of Sherman's soldiers when 
they captured the State Capitol and the days of reconstruction are very 
vivid today to those survivors of that period. 

Capt. S. A. Ashe, in his history, says: "One of the Raleigh ladies in 
writing of the conditions in that city at this time gives these facts:" 

"Raleigh was now filled with wounded and disabled soldiers; the 
churches and every available place were turned into hospitals. I did 
what I could, but it seemed nothing; many poor men on benches, some 
in high delirium, some in the agony of death. A young soldier passed 
away none knew his name or his home; as the coffin lid was being 
screwed down a dear old lady pressed her lips to his brow and said, "Let 
me kiss him for his dear old mother.' 1 Every heart responded and all 
eyes were filled with tears. Volumes of heart rending and pathetic in- 
cidents of our four years cruel war. Although we were becoming less 
hopeful, yet the fall of the Confederacy was unexpected at last." 

Mrs. Martha Haywood gives these sacred recollections of the Con' 
federate days in Raleigh. 



Is it your prayer that the world may \now 
The \nightly deeds of the stainless dead?" 



"My most vivid recollection of the war in Raleigh are closely related 
to Christ Church, there we used to go for the strength and inspiration 
to carry us through the dark days that were upon us. To listen to the 
council of our pastor Doctor Mason. To pray for the Confederate 
Government and its leader, Jefferson Davis. There is an old legend 
that the Golden Cock on the steeple of Christ Church is the only article 
resembling a fowl that Sherman's bummers did not take when they 
passed through our city. Great would have been the grief of our con' 



of the Confederacy 45 

gregation had the steeple been low enough to permit their trying their 
hand at its capture, for day by day it had spoken to us of hope, remind- 
ing us that each day was a new day, calling on us to hold to the faith, 
no matter how hard the winter of discontent. Never to deny by word 
or action our belief in the goodness of God — our faith in our Redeemer. 
Around the church clustered our strength and our hope for the Life 
Eternal — here the men and boys who had left us to fight for the right, 
came sometimes back on their furloughs to join their prayers with ours — 
here their sweethearts, wives and mothers came to pray for their safety 
during the long cold days of dread. The dim quiet aisles are always 
peopled for me with pretty brides of those days — the sad faced widows. 
Here in the quiet light I catch again the ghostly glimmer of Generals 
Branch and Cox, here the voices of the choir in the old hymns of faith 
and courage. We offered the bell of the church to the Confederate 
Government, but it was never removed, for into each heart had crept 
the knowledge that all we could do was too little to stem the mighty 
tide that was upon us. 

The voice of the old bell speaks ever to my heart, of the golden days 
before the cruel war, the gray days when our faith rose triumphant in 
prayers and hymns. 



"7v[o country or clime hath devotion \i\e thine." 



Among the many women of our State whose ministrations to the sol' 
diers of the Confederacy should be recorded, is Mrs. Sarah E. Elliott. 
Mrs. Elliott refugeed from her home in Elisabeth City to Oxford during 
the war, and while in the latter town she gave special work in nursing 
at the hospital at Kittrell Springs. This was one of the fashionable 
watering places in anti-bellum days and had been converted into a hospital 
by the Confederate Government, to which were sent hundreds of sick 
and wounded soldiers. 

Mrs. Elliott and other ladies of this section were the ministering angels 
at this hospital. She not only sent wagons loaded with delicacies and 
food from the opening of it until the last, but spared no pains to induce 
others to do the same. She tenderly nursed these soldiers and was un- 
tiring in her efforts to relieve their suffering. Over fifty of these pa- 



46 T^orth Carolina Women 

tients of the Kittrell Springs hospital died and were buried near the town 
of Kittrell. Mrs. Elliott in 1871 rescued these graves from oblivion and 
with her own hands planted a cedar hedge around the plot, fencing it 
in and making it one of the loveliest of God's acres in the State. 



A tribute should be paid to Mrs. John Harper, whose colonial house 
stood near the sight of the battle of Bentonville (March 19, '65) not far 
from Goldsboro. This dauntless woman went forth upon this scene of 
carnage and battle, and with the aid of her children, gathered into her 
home the wounded, whom she nursed as best she could, bathing the 
fevered brow and sending the departed souls on wings of prayer to God. 
Then she gave burial to these, and to those who were left on the field of 
battle in the dire calamity that pressed the Confederate forces. 



***0******** 



"All hail to you, Sisters of warm blooded s\ys, 
Proud mothers of chivalrous men." 



Amongst the Florence Nightingales of North Carolina were the wo- 
men of the Farquhard, William and John Smith families of the Little 
River community in Harnett (then Cumberland) county. The battle of 
Averasboro, between Sherman's army and Johnston's, was fought on 
March 16th, 1865, in the beautiful grove of Mr. John Smith. Instead 
of flying from this terrifying scene the women of this family assisted 
in carrying the wounded and dying into this home, and turned 
the entire house into a hospital. The men were tenderly and lov- 
ingly nursed by the older women while the young ladies of he 
family and the community brought every delicacy that could be 
concocted from their meager supplies (after Sherman's destruction.) 
The main line of battle extended through the section where Chicora 
Cemetery now stands. The breastworks, part of which still remain, ex- 
tended from Black River across to the Cape Fear River, a distance of 
several miles. 

Miss Jessie Slocumb Smith, grand-daughter of Mrs. Farquhard Smith, 
one of the "Florence Nightingales" of the battle of Averasboro, gives 
this description of the homes of the three "mothers," who bore such mv 
portant parts in this event of the war. 



of the Confederacy 47 

"During the battle of Averasboro the home of Mrs. Farquhard Smith 
was confiscated by the Federal troops and used as their headquarters. 
The William Smith home, now standing just as in the '60's, was used 
as a Federal hospital. The "parlor" on which the blood stains are yet 
to be seen was used as an operating room, and the piano, now the treas- 
ured possession of a grand-daughter, was used for an operating table. 
The federal soldiers dying here were first buried in the garden, but all 
of these, as well as those killed in the battle of Averasboro were later 
moved to the Federal cemetery in Raleigh. 

The most interesting of the three homes is the old John Smith place, 
Oak Grove, which was vacated by the families and used as the Confed- 
erate hospital. It is one of the few homes to which the passing years has 
brought no architectual changes. It still stands, though now more than 
a century old, as simply and as proudly as in those trying days of '65! 
In the attic are still to be seen the holes made by the cannon balls, and 
on an upstairs bed room floor are still descernible the blood stains left 
by wounded Confederate soldiers. To this hospital most of the wound- 
ed were carried — all who could be accomodated. When, however, its 
rooms were filled to overflowing other homes and neighbors came to the 
rescue. 

After fighting all day our men were compelled to withdraw with 
great loss of life. Those who escaped were so closely pressed that they 
were unable to bury their dead, so the enemy placed the bodies in has- 
tily dug graves. 

As interesting as the battle field are the homes of the neighborhood, 
Smithville it was called. These homes escaped the torch usually ap' 
plied because, I suppose, they were necessary to the Union troops. The 
Farquhard Smith home was used as headquarters for the Federal troops. 

Only those who have heard the women of that day talk realize the pov- 
erty of those days for this community. First Johnston's army had passed 
through taking the necessary supplies for our men, and then came Sher- 
man's army pillaging everything. For food there was only a little corn 
left and sometimes some meat which had been buried or hidden. Great 
was the problem of procuring food for the patients at the hospital. The 
ladies living near by, who went in to nursing each day, carried part of 
their frugal supper of cornmuffin and hominy, while those living farther 



48 Worth Carolina 'Women 

away, those who had saved some cows and chickens and so had milk and 
eggs, made such delicacies as they could contrive and sent each day to 
the hospital. 

We of the present day can but marvel that there was sufficient 
strength and spirit left after going through all the hardships of that 
period for the women to begin immediately the work of "carrying on!" 
However they did it." 




A FORAGING PARTY 



Drawn by one of Sherman's i soldiers, and copied by the author from 
a magazine of the Sixties. This illustrates many of the incidents we 
are recording, where homes were ruthlessly pillaged. 



of the Confederacy 49 



COURAGE DISPLAYED 

"Let Evil come with angry brow, a lionhcarted hero thou." 



In one of the issues of that valuable magazine, "Carolina and the 
Southern Cross," Mrs. Archbell gives this thrilling story of a young girl 
in Kinston (who was later Mrs. Minnie Suggs). After telling of the 
indignities and desperations of the Yankees in Kinston, Mrs. Suggs says: 
"As I looked from the window of my home I saw those brutal Yankees 
hang my little brother, in a kind of gallows used to swing hogs) and 
calling my mother, I rushed from the house like fury, I no longer knew 
what fear was. I seized the collar of the Yankee who was drawing the 
child up the gallows and shook him until he released the rope. By that 
time Mother came and helped unhang the boy, who was as white as 
a sheet and shaking with ague. Mother put him to bed, and those 
Yankees left." 

This same girl again showed the splendid courage of so many of our 
Confederate women. One day when she was alone in her country home, 
with only her cook, a Yankee and a negro rode up. The Yankee called 
to the negro to come in and help him burn the house. In telling the 
story Mrs, Suggs says: "No," I said, stepping on the porch. "That 
negro knows better than to come in. If he comes in I shall kill him." 
"I saw that the negro did not offer to come, but the white man began 
to move the chairs into the center of the room and called to our cook 
to bring fire. She refused, but he kept moving things and calling for fire 
In order to move a table he placed his gun by the door. I saw my ad' 
vantage, and reached it just as he realized what I was doing. I did not 
have time to aim the gun but I raised it like a club and told him that I 
would use it if he came near me. The negro on horseback rode off as 
soon as he saw me with the gun." 

"Hold up your hands," I said to the Yankee, and his hands went up. 
"Now," I said, "Go and get on your horse." He did so, but he begged 
me to let him have the gun. He said he would have to tell what had 



50 J^orth Carolina "Women 

become of it. The rifle contained fifteen leads. I looked at the Yankee 
and told him that I would return the gun if he would take an oath. 
He agreed. "Raise your right hand," I said, "and repeat the oath after 
me: "I swear before Almighty God that I will go home and never fire 
another gun at a Southerner. 11 He raised the hand and took the oath, 
I handed him the gun. Somehow I felt safe in doing so. He took off 
his cap and said: "You brave girl. No man could harm you after 
such a daring act, and I wish for you only what is good, 1 ' and he rode 
away." 

The variety of war industries carried on in Kinston were very great, 
and the women did a large part of the work. There were three hos- 
pitals in which the women nursed, besides a long line of tents used for 
smallpox cases. 



"Aunt Abby, the Irrepressible" 

"What could daunt her, what could turn her?" 



Mrs. Abby House of Franklin county, made famous from Mrs. Mary 
Bayard Clark's sketches, as "Aunt Abby, the Irrepressible," though a 
"diamond in the rough" was one of the strangest and most courageous 
characters among our women of the Sixties. Unable to read or write, she 
could use her tongue most effectively, as on her frequent visits to General 
Lee, President Davis and Governor Vance, when she showed her determ- 
ination by always gaining her point in her efforts to obtain furloughs 
for sick soldiers. Mrs. Clark quotes her as saying to her eight nephews, 
"I can tell you not a man of my family would I let stay at home in peace 
if he was able to tote a musket. I said to them, boys, all 'er you go 
along to the field whar you belongs, and if any of you gits sick or is 
wounded, you can depend on your old aunt Abby to nuss and tend you. 
For so help me God if one of you gits down and I can't git to you no 
other way, I'll foot it to your bedside; and if any one of you dies or gits 
killed, I promise to bring you home and bury you with your kin." 

Faithfully did she keep her promise, as five of the eight sleep in sol- 
diers graves, nursed, or his body brought home by this fearless woman; 



of the Confederacy 5 1 

even for twelve days searching the battlefields, herself unmindful of it's 
horrors, and walking, even running, to Richmond to nurse her boys. 

"Aunt Abby" was as fearless under fire as in the use of her tongue, 
and with the greatest coolness, she would walk through the trenches 
during the fearful bombardment of Petersburg, frequently going under 
heavy fire to carry water to our wounded. On one occasion finding 
two horses, whose riders had jumped off to run down some Yankees, she 
carefully led them by the bridle to find their owners with the bullets 
around her like hail, and she as cool as though leading the horses to 
water at home. 

She was on the way to Gen. Lee's army when she heard of the evacu' 
ation of Richmond and President Davis' arrival at Greensboro, so she 
"footed" it down the railroad track to join her beloved Davis since she 
couldn't "git to Gen'ral Lee." Reaching Greensboro she says she "cook' 
ed the last mouthful o" vittles Jeff Davis eat in North Carolina, and he 
shuck hands with me when the train started, and said "goodbye Aunt 
Abby, you are true grit, and stick to your friends to the last, but's no 
more than I thought you'd do." 

Her fearlessness in forcing the Federal Provost Marshal at Raleigh 
to give her back her mule, "crap critter," as she called it, which Sher- 
man's "bummers" had stolen, fully carried out Governor Vance's de- 
scription of this unique character in a letter to General Lee as "The 
ubiquitious, indefatigable and irrepressible Mrs. Abby Home House." 



Other Heroines 



"7\[o army's private soldiers ever may 
Have quite so many tributes; they shall be 
Forever held in memory with Lee, 
Remembered, loved, forever and a dayl" 



General William A. Smith, Commander of the North Carolina Di- 
vision United Confederate Veterans, gives this thrilling story of a heroine 
of Sherman's raid in Anson county. 



52 Worth Carolina 'Women 

"When the Federal army commanded by Gen. Shermana passed 
through the southern portion of Anson county, January and February 
1865, occupying a week in passing; the L. D. Bennett home lay in his 
track. His soldiers set fire to the gin house and burned more than 200 
bales of cotton, the corn crib and contents, the grainery with its wheat, 
oats and field peas; robbed the smoke house and destroyed every thing 
that would sustain life. The way to conquer the South was to conquer 
the women of the South — the sustainers of the army in the field — the 
only way to conquer the Southern women was to starve them and their 
children. In this they reckoned without their host as the Southern wo- 
men were unconquerable. 

"J^o annals of the world has ever told 
Of grander, more unselfish sacrifice, 
More loyal hearts in God's paradise." 
And sacred scribe has never vet unrolled 

They hooked up two magnificent beys to the finest carriage in Anson 
county and loaded it with hams from the smokehouse and drove away 
— it was never seen more. They drove off or wantonly shot every horse 
and mule, every cow and calf. Flock of sheep and goats did not escape. 
Killed the peafowls, the ducks, guineas and chickens. The only feather- 
ed thing that escaped was a gander. For three or four days during the 
passing of Sherman's army, he was without food or water. Afterward 
he came out of hiding. The Bennett family kept it as relic till it became 
so old that a breadcrust, when given was carried by him to the chicken 
trough and soaked — softened so he could eat it. 

"They carried off the watches and jewelry and silverware, not leaving 
so much as a teaspoon. Broke into and ransacked the trunks, bureau's 
and closets. The piano, sofas, dining table, bureaus and other large fur' 
niture was cut up into fragments with an axe. They did not spare the 
old walnut and mahogany bedsteads. Opened the ticks and scattered 
the feathers over the floors of the chambers, with buckets brought mo- 
lasses (sorghum) and mixed it with the feathers by thoroughly stirring. 

"The five sons of the Bennett family were all in the Confederate 
arm. Mrs. Jane Bennett and two daughters, Mary and Charlotte, were 
the only occupants of the dwelling. When the Yankees came the mother 
and daughters retired into one room, locked the door and gave up the 
other portion of the house. After they had destroyed everything, (took 



of the Confederacy 53 

what they desired and tore up the balance) wrought their feindish will 
in both stories and attic, the vandals approached the door of the room 
where the mother and maiden daughters were. This they found locked 
and were preparing to break the door down. Then it was thrown open 
by the elder maiden with a repeating gun in her hand. Said she "I will 
kill the first man who enters." They looked at the repeating gun, then 
along its shining barrel, saw the scintilating beads of determination in the 
flashing eyes of the heroic girl, and steady hands of the resolute girl be- 
hind the gun, and dared not enter. Thus she saved her honor and pro- 
tected her mother and sister." 

"A man would not be brave enough to resist a horde of determined 
men bent on mischief, pillage and vandalism, but Miss Mary Bennett 
dared to and did defy them. Seeing an officer in their midst she asked 
him for a guard to be stationed at the door, which was done. 

"The above story and incident is literally true as heard from the lips 
of Miss Bennett, for I married this HEROINE." 

Capt. Ashe tells us of how venerable Bishop Thomas Atkinson at 
his home at Wadesboro on March 3, 1865, was insulted by Sherman's 
soldiers. Bishop Atkinson said, "when the Yankees entered the town 
I requested my family to remain in their rooms. A soldier entering the 
door with many oaths demanded my watch which I refused to give up. 
He then presented a pistol at me, and threatened to shoot me if I did 
not surrender it immediately. I still refused and the altercation became 
loud and my wife heard it and ran into the room and beseeched me to 
give it up which I then did. He then proceeded to rifle our trunks and 
drawers, took some of my clothes from these and my wife's jewelry." 



'What will not woman, gentle woman dare, 
When strong affection, stirs her spirit up?" 



When Sherman's army was passing through Clinton, Sampson County, 
some of the soldiers attacked the home of Robert A. Moseley, Commander 
of the Home Guard, who had been forced on account of illness to re- 
turn home from active duty. It was during the night that the Yankee 
soldiers entered the home. They pulled open the trunks and drawers in 
search of valuables, then threw a large feather pillow on the infant Robert 
Moseley, Jr., who lay asleep on his mother's bed. Like an enraged tigress 



H 7<lorih Carolina Women 

Mrs. Moseley sprang up in defence of her baby, exclaiming, "would you 
murder a helpless child?" With an oath the ruffian said "the D little 
rebel ought to be smothered." Just then a scream of "brother, brother," 
was heard and Robert Moseley rushed to the room occupied by his wife's 
eighteen year old sister which had been entered by the marauders. After 
plundering the bed room and terrifying the young girl and her two little 
sisters, Anna and Ida, the soldiers left with curses and threats. 

This incident was given me by Mrs. Moseley herself now a lovely and 
cultured old lady in her nineties. Her delicate soldier husband passed 
to the Beyond soon after Sherman's soldiers attacked his home, leaving 
her (who had been raised in wealth) to face the poverty of reconstruction 
days with five small children. How this young woman showed pluck 
and heroism in raising and educating these as splendid men and women 
is another story. But the spirit was characteristic of our Southern Wo- 
men of the Sixties. 

As Mrs. Mary A. Corbett, of Ivanhoe, Sampson County, lay in bed 
with a two days old infant, Sherman's soldiers, trying to terrify her into 
disclosing her hidden valuables, started a fire beneath her bedroom win' 
dow, the flames mounting high. In order to save her fatherless babes, 
she gave the information. 

A thrilling act of courage was exhibited by Mrs. Henry Finch, of 
Johnston County. In retaliation for Wheeler's Calvary cutting off part 
of Sherman's army train, the Yankee soldiers locked Mrs. Finch inside 
her home and set fire to the building. This intrepid woman raised the 
window, jumped to the ground, pointed a gun and threatened to shoot, 
saying she preferred to be shot by them than burned to death. The sol' 
aires admired her courage allowed her to walk over to the adjoining plan' 
tation. The home of Mrs. Lucien Saunders in Johnston was also de' 
stroyed, and through it all Mrs. Saunders showed this same splendid spirit 
which characterised our Southern women. 

Mrs. Evelyn Smith Beckwith, while refugeeing from Craven County 
at Smithfield, Johnston County, had a terrible experience with Sherman's 
soldiers. With no one in the house but herself and four small children, 
negro troops, commanded by white men, came upon them and demanded 
hidden silver. One of the officers threatened to hang Mrs. Beckwith 
and the children, and burnt her home, finally saying, "Madam, do you 
know we sometimes divest the Southern women of their clothes?" This 



of the Confederacy 55> 

indauntable woman replied that she was not afraid of him, and that if 
he dared deprive her of her clothes he would never get on his horse again. 
And these rufians departed overcome by her superb fearlessness. 

The same fearlessness was shown by Mrs. Murdock White, a young 
woman of Sampson County. When part of Sherman's army was en- 
gaged in their destructive visit to Sampson county they came upon her 
house. With a pistol placed at the head of Mrs. White they demanded 
the hidden valuables. This corageous woman said, "Shoot, I'll never tell 
you where they are." Whereupon the ruffians departed from the house 
disgusted. 

Miss Nellie Worth (now Mrs. Geo. French, of Wilmington) when 
Sherman's army were devastating Eastern Carolina, had a Yankee present 
a pistol at her head and threatened to kill her if she didn't tell where the 
valuables were hidden. This courageous young girl though completely 
in his power, defied and dared him to touch her, refusing to give the 
desired information. Finding his threats were useless, the disgusted 

"bummer" left swearing, as Miss Worth expressed it, "I was the d st 

rebel he had ever seen," (which I considered quite a compliment) . 

The experience of Mrs. Rachael Foy, the widow of Enoch Foy, who 
lived near New Bern, was very harrowing. Her only son, Franklin, was 
a Scout in very hazardous service for the army, a reward being offered 
by the Federals for his capture. As Foy was "scouting" in the district 
around New Bern bringing in valuable information, the Yankees, think' 
ing he would visit his mother and his small children, (who lived in that 
vicinity) came out from New Bern eight hundred strong. In their ef' 
forts to capture Foy, they surrounded Mrs. Rachael Foy's home, locking 
her and her grandchildren in a room, giving all her keys to the slaves, 
making them rulers over her household. They camped in her grove for 
three days, not allowing anything to be carried to her, though some of her 
faithful servants secretely slipped food and water. Finally the soldiers 
marched off without capturing the Scout Foy. In the home of Mrs. 
Gillette they encountered Confederate soldiers, and a skirmish took place 
in the large grove of this home. Mrs. Gillette was very ill and not able 
to be moved to a place of safety. In the excitement she rolled off her 
bed, a bullet passing through the bed where she had been lying! 



56 Worth Carolina Women 

The story of how a young girl of twelve years cleverly outwitted a 
Yankee oficer shows that even the children were on the alert to help their 
Southland. 

The home of Mrs. Robert Roundtree, near Kinston, was invaded by 
the Federal soldiers and pillaged. The officer in charge made the young 
daughter, Rose, (a beautiful girl of twelve) sit at the piano and play for 
him. After this he forced her to accompany him on a drive, while the 
frantic mother, unprotected, could only plead for her child in vain. This 
girl, tho young in years, sensed her danger, and as she and her captor 
drove past a thick wood she exclaimed, "There's where my brother has 
his company of Confederate soldiers." Her ruse worked well, for the 
Yankee officer immediately wheled, threw the girl from the vehicle and 
dashed madly down the road. After this it was observed that the Fed- 
erals who had been hanging around the vicinity, all disappeared, evident- 
ly believing that our soldiers were secreted there. 

This girl was afterwards Mrs. William Kennedy, of Kinston, an ac- 
complished musician and beauty of the Sixties. 



The story of the services of beautiful Daisy Chaffee, wife of Col. 
William Lamb, Commander of Ft. Fisher, (until wounded) stands out 
as one of the brightest chapters of the history of the women in North 
Carolina in the Confederacy. While not a North Carolina woman, this 
State claimed her from 1863 until the end of the war in '65. Declin- 
ing the use of several spacious homes near Wilmington, Mrs. Lamb took 
up her abode in a three room log house at Ft. Fisher, in order to be near 
her devoted husband, (to sustain and cheer him) being the only white 
woman living in this vicinity. This young woman gained the titles of 
"Heroine of Ft. Fisher," and 'Angel of the Fort," by serving the sick 
and wounded soldiers and sailors there, under conditions that would have 
tried the soul of most women. Her bravery was fully shown during the 
terriffic bombardment of Ft. Fisher and her faith was sustained through 
it all. It was Mrs. Lamb who helped to tenderly prepare for burial the 
body of Rosa Greenhow, the celebrated Confederate spy, who was 
drowned off Ft. Fisher. The full and thrilling story of Mrs. Lamb has 
been recently given by Louis T. Moore, a talented historian of Wilming- 
ton. 



of the Confederacy 5"? 



CANTEEN WORK 

"The scene shall fade from my memory never, 
For Dixie Land, hooray forever." 

Little bands of women canteen workers in all our principal towns 
along the railroad met trains bearing the wounded, often in the darkness 
of night, with such refreshments as they could provide, and often clothed, 
fed and comforted these weary men. News from home and camp was 
eagerly exchanged before the train departed. 

Mrs. J. Henry Smith, of Greensboro, tells of the memorable night of 
the battle of Bentonville, March 19, '65, when the war in its stern and 
startling reality came to their very door. Without warning or prepara' 
tion, the wounded were brought to Greensboro in such numbers as to 
fill the churches, court house and every available space in the town, where 
beds were hastily improvised. To that clarion call the women of Greens' 
boro responded with one accord. With tender hearts and eager hands 
they nursed, and out of their scanty food these women fed these dear 
soldiers, each neighboorhood feeding from their own tables the body of 
soldiers nearest them. Soon after the ill and wounded were transported 
to the historic mansion of Edgeworth Seminary, which was used as a 
hospital. 

Many interesting incidents connected with the women of Greens- 
boro have been preserved through a "reminiscence" of Mrs. Lettie Walk- 
er, a daughter of Governor James L. Morehead, one of North Caro- 
lina's most distinguished sons. Other inicidents of Greensboro have been 
given in previous articles, and these may be added to the history of 
Guilford county's women of the sixties. Mrs. James Morehead had the 
honor of being hostess to General Beauregard and staff, in March 1865, 
at her mansion "Bland Wood/ 1 President and Mrs. Davis remained 
over one night in Greensboro, declining Governor and Mrs. Morehead's 
invitation "lest the Federal troops should burn the house that sheltered 
him for one night.'" Members of the Confederate cabinet, Alexander 
Stephens, General Joseph E. Johnston, were guests of the Moreheads 
after Lee's surrender, as they journeyed from Richmond, also General 



58 Worth Carolina Women 

Lee's brother, who commanded army stores sent from Richmond. The 
Federal Generals, Burnside, Schofield, and Kilpatrick with their staffs 
sent word to the Mayor that they would occupy the largest house in 
town so they came to "Bland Wood 11 which already held three families 
•and many sick soldiers. The story has been told before of how Greens' 
boro' women met the trains bearing the wounded and^dying, seeing boxes 
filled with dead bodies piled high on the railroad platform; with dying 
soldiers lying near to be cared for. It was an awful experience through 
which Mrs. Walker and these brave women passed, but with loving care. 

Mrs. M. L. Crutchfield who is now in her eighties and a resident of 
the Masonic home at Greensboro tells of the time when as Margaret Holt 
a maiden of twenty years she lived at Swepsonville and took part in 
feeding the army of soldiers of the Confederate army. She remembers 
with remarkable vividness the picture of that day in which the Confed' 
erate forces crossed Haw river. 

Patriotic citizens here and there, along the sparsely settled banks of the 
river, were scraping together all the supplies that could be found in those 
Southern homes, which in the latter part of the conflict had in many in' 
stances bare cupboards. The soldiers were sick and hungry. 

"It was in the fall of the year when the soldiers began to pass. They 
were hungry and some of them were half naked. Lots of them had no 
shoes and many of them fell down with all kinds of sickness. 11 

Long into the night Margaret stood at her post heating edibles for the 
soldiers of her country. Things were getting low. Bread was given 
out without much gravy on it and then from the cupboard the preserves 
were brought out, the preserves that had been made a few weeks before 
out of cane sorghum. 

And still they came, barefoot soldiers, hungry soldiers, hatless sol' 
diers, marching to no rythmic drumbeat nor with no flying banner but 
just "a walking along" shuffling some of the more fortunate ones, riding 
horses that were nearly broken down. The crossing of the river was 
a slow process. It had to be forded over a raised bed that was just wide 
enough to accommodate one vehicle at a time. 

For 36 hours, according to Mrs. Crutchfield, who was the girl at the 
oven, the forces was continuously filing across the river. Many of them 
never got across, but fell by the way with one of the terrible diseases 
so common to the army of the sixties. 11 



of the Confederacy 5$ 

OTHER INCIDENTS OF WOMENS' WORK 

"They, patient, fed the patriotic fires." 

From the pen of Miss Georgia Hicks of Faison (an ex-historian of this 
division) we have some interesting history of the war-days in Duplin 
County. 

"'Our home on the Goldsboro and Wilmington road was the highway 
of the passage of Confederate troops to and fro. My mother, Mrs. 
Eliza Hicks, wife of Doctor James H. Hicks, was an ardent Confederate, 
and made much clothing for the soldiers from her plantation. She al- 
ways had quantities of good food ready for our soldiers and would send 
it to the road gate for them as they passed, the officers coming to the 
house. Her home made one of the stations for couriers, who were sta- 
tioned every ten miles, and carried messages, day and night. Mother 
reserved one room in the house for these Confederate Couriers. In 
March '65, the army of Generals Terry and Sherman came to Duplin 
county on their way to Raleigh, Terry coming from Fort Fisher, and 
Sherman from South Carolina. I have heard mother say that General 
Terry, (whose headquarters were at the home of my sister, Mrs. C. D. 
Hill) was always kind and a thorough gentleman, as were the members 
of his staff, very different from Sherman and his officers. Mrs. Hill 
rendered real service to one of Terry's staff, who was desperately ill, in 
nursing him, and he attributed his recovery largely to her. The be- 
havior of Sherman's army around Faison is but a repetition of the treat- 
ment of the people whereever they went. 

In the home of Mrs. Rachel Pearsal of Duplin county, her aunt, aged 
and ill, was thrown from her bed on the floor, so that they could look 
for valuables they thought hidden there. 

I was a school-girl at Saint Mary's in Raleigh and I will never forget 
the feeling of the girls, when Johnston's army passed by. The Federal 
general Howard, was encamped in Saint Mary's grove for weeks, and we 
were in a state of excitement all the time." 

There were seven Hicks boys, of the Faison community, in the war 



60 North Carolina Women 

between the States, and each played his part valiantly. They were: 
Capt. Lewis, Doctor John, Lieut. A. D., Elias, John, Lyde, and Albert. 
A very thrilling escape from death by the Yankees was made by 
Doctor James H. Hicks, the father of Miss Georgia Hicks, the narrator 
of the above incidents. Sherman's army was encamped near the home 
of Mrs. James H. Hicks. This corageous woman with^a sorrowful heart 
saw her husband, that splendid physician, carried away in the night by 
the soldiers on the pretext of attending a sick man. Mrs. Hicks pled with 
him not to go but his one thought was to relieve suffering. He was car' 
ried far away and when he was brought by hours later, he had the appear^, 
ance of a man that had almost seen death. These ruffians hung this fine 
old gentleman up by the neck twice, in their endeavor to secure informa' 
tion as to hidden valuables. They finally released their victim who re- 
fused to divulge his secrets. Doctor Hicks, never recovered from this ter' 
rible shock and his wife never mentioned it, for she was almost prostrated 
over his treatment by these ruffians. In the same house lived Miss 
Rachael Mclver, "sister cousin" of Mrs. Hicks, who said always that she 
never knew why, but she was never afraid of the Yankee soldiers. One 
day when a man came down stairs with his arms full of silk dresses, she 
ordered him to put them down. He laughed loud, jumped on his horse 
and galloped away. 



Though not in the direct path of the invaders, the old town of Pitts- 
boro, Chatham county, was filled with women who refugeed there from 
the Cape Fear section. These assisted the Pittsboro women in making 
garments and knitted for the soldiers their Aid Society being active in 
keeping the boys at the front supplied. Mrs. John Jackson (Lucy 
Worth) inherited some of the executive ability of her father, Jonathan 
Worth, Reconstruction Governor and War Treasurer of the State, and 
was one of the most inventive women of this community, showing re- 
markable skill in her work. She cut up her handsome carpets, as did 
many other Southern women, and devised many things to cheer these 
poor men. Her daughter, Bettie London, (Mrs. Henry A.) has kept 
up her mothers enthusiasm in the Cause, and as a devoted member and 
former president of the N. C. Division U. D. C, she has paid loving 



of the Confederacy 61 

tribute to the men who followed Lee, and whose soldier boy husband 
carried the last message at Appomattox, to "cease firing.' 1 '' 

The young women of the London family in Pittsboro were among 
the active workers of this section and gave comfort to many a needy 
family of the men in the army. Miss Mary London (later Mrs. Josh 
T. James of Wilmington) showed the courageous spirit of many South' 
ern girls when threatened by Sherman's bummers with a pistol at her head 
to disclose the family silver (this at a friend's in Wadesboro.) 



Old Salem was far removed from the seat of warfare but the women 
of this Moravian community were very active in their work. Their 
Soldier's Aid society was early organised and a description of her flag 
presentation is given further on in this story. 

The famous Female Academy of old Salem was kept open through 
the entire war and opened its doors, as did the one in Charlotte, to girls 
who were refugeeing from eastern Carolina. 

Many older women found refuge in this hospitable town, from the 
seat of warfare. Occasionally bands of Yankee soldiers came through 
Forsythe County and these Confederates did not escape being pillaged. 
They gave generously of their provisions to help feed Lee's army and 
their soldiers fought valiantly in the field. 



Splendid Services of a Kinston Woman 



A woman of Kinston, a Northern woman by birth, but who married 
a Southern man in 1857, deserves to be remembered as one of our wo' 
men of this State who bore an important part in the war between the 
States. 

This was Mrs. Anderson Roscoe Miller (Dellia Maria Henry), the 
mother of Mrs. H. O. Hyatt, an honored member of the U. D. C. in 
Kinston. Being left at the very beginning of the war, her husband Dr. 
Miller, volunteering at the first call of arms this young woman was 
placed in a most difficult position. Being a Northern woman made 
both sides suspect that she was a spy and she suffered many unjust per- 



62 7>{orth. Carolina "Women 

secutions. When the Northern troops first entered Kinston and were 
looting the town Mrs. Miller succeeded in securing from the Federal 
General a guard for the whole town explaining that she was the daughter 
of a leading Mason of Vermont. Her timely intervention prevented an 
attack on the young ladies of Kinston, whom the marauders were threat- 
ening. Mrs. Hyatt the daughter of Mrs. Miller, in a most interesting 
story of her mother's experiences during the war, says : 

"Kinston was a battle ground twice during the war and was occu- 
pied frequently by both Southern and Northern troops. Whenever there 
were soldiers in the hospital my mother took or sent soups and other 
things to the hospital every day. Once when the town was evacuated 
hurriedly by the Southern troops she felt for three days she must still go 
to the hospital. On the third day she told her servant, Aunt Harriet, 
she could stand it no longer she must go. When she arrived she found 
nine Southern soldiers too sick to be removed who had been without food 
or water for three days. She and Aunt Harriet bathed, dressed their 
wounds and fed them. 

"My mother went home to visit her parents in the summer of '61, 
taking me with her. I was taken with diphtheria and at the same time 
she received a letter telling her not to attempt to return as the lines were 
practically closed. Her people tried to keep her but she would not stay. 
She said "I have cast my fortunes there and I must go." She left me 
sick and the comforts of a safe home to take the place she felt duty 
called her to take. Most of the first families of the town who were able 
to do so refugeed to the western part of the State to avoid the terrors 
and depredations of war and she was throughout the whole war in a po- 
sition to defend and comfort those who did not refugee. She gave 
her whole heart to this service, and was a great help to many in des- 
perate need. 

"About the first of February in '65, she went to Vermont to bring me 
home. She carried tobacco beneath a false bottom in her trunk, which 
she sold in New York to help pay her expenses. Returning she filled 
the space with $25.00 worth of needles, which were long before this time 
very scarce in the South. Going, she drove through the country to New- 
bern by way of Trenton. Returning, at Newbern she found the largest 
force of Yankees that had ever been there. She tried for several days 
to get through the lines with me and almost despaired of doing so. Fin- 



of the Confederacy 63 

ally she met on the street, by accident, an old friend who was an officer 
in the Union army. She told him she was trying to get home. He 
said "Our orders are very strict. No one is to leave town until our 
next move is made. She insisted that he take her to the commander 
anyway. This officer asked her if she would be willing to go up the 
river with the gungoats as a prisoner of war. She said "If it is God's 
will I shall live to get home with my child, if it is not I may as well 
die in one place as another. 1,1 She believed in a personal God and pre 
tecting angels. So she and I came up the river with gunboats that were 
throwing shells on the town. My mother begged the officer in charge 
of the boat to shoot up the river instead of at the town so as not to hurt 
the women and children, which he did, he said, for a brave woman. 
She had to clutch me tightly every time a gun was fired to keep me from 
jumping overboard. We landed after the battle near the old Graham 
Place. The river bridge had been burned down by the Confederates to 
retard pursuit, and we had to cross the river on boats. 

"My father came from the war ruined in health, his nerves were pros- 
trated, and for two or three years he was so ill that he did not even wish 
to work. How my mother put her shoulder to the wheel, taking the small 
amount of life insurance left by her father and opening a millinery store 
in the parlor of her home, is a story of splendid determination of a wo- 
man. It was said she was the only person who went into business im- 
mediately after the war who did not go into bankruptcy. She was a 
skillful manager but she was also a rigid economist when in debt. She 
believed in education and even through the trying days of the war and 
reconstruction she found time to teach her children. She originated the 
movement for the first school in Kinston subscribing the first twenty-five 
dollars. Though ill in health, she continued her work until it was com- 
pleted, her determination and courage winning the admiration of all 
who knew her. Her brother William was on the train once and over- 
heard some men discussing her. They said "She is the ablest woman in 
North Carolina.'" Many persons who have had business dealings with 
her have said, "She was the finest woman I have ever known." 

"She said, "I have lived a thousand deaths; it is easy for me to die.' 



64 J^lorih Carolina "Women 

"O yes, I am a Southern girl, and I glory in the name." 



Mrs. Ida Wilkins of Weldon, one of the oldest and most honored 
members of the North Carolina Division of the U: D. C, gives us a 
glimpses of the sixties when she was a young girl. She says, "There were 
four companies known as Light Infantry at the beginning of the war 
between the States, one was from Fayetteville, one from Wilmington, 
one from Wilson, one from Halifax. In April 1861, the Halifax com' 
pany were quartered in Weldon for quite a while being instructed and 
preparing for service. How handsome they appeared to my girlish eyes 
in their gay uniforms and plumed hats. There was great anxiety as to 
which regiment they would be assigned to hoping they would be assigned 
to the first North Carolina regiment. 

The Enfield Blues another old company from Halifax county was the 
one assigned to the first regiment greatly to the disappointment of the 
Light Infantry boys. 

Those were troublous times, and the memory of them is still very vivid 
to me. The history of these four Light Infantry companies should live 
and the fact that they were all organized companies prior to 1860 proves 
their service, which was further emphasized most valiently in the Con- 
federate army. 

The "Hornets Nest Rifles" of Charlotte also came through Weldon 
on the way to the front. The file leader carrying on his bayonet a big 
hornets nest which attracted much attention. 

The women of Weldon gave loving service in nursing the wounded, 
as a wayside hospital was established here at the beginning of the war, 
Weldon being on the direct route of transportation. 

The Methodist church was used as a hospital, and the home of Mrs. 
Hamlin Allen was filled with the soldiers. 

Our women were active and untiring all through the war and we 
young girls tried to assist the older ones in their work for the boys in 
gray. 



Miss Annie Ellison of Coleraine, Bertie county, was one of the most 
active young women of that section in work for the soldiers. She travel' 



of the Confederacy 65 

ed over her entire county on horseback alone, soliciting clothing for the 
needy soldiers. When her soldier sweetheart, Lt. Col. Thomas Sharp, 
returned home after the war he found that this lovely young girl had 
been called to the Beyond. 

Mrs. John Mercer of Brunswick county, was one of the brave mothers 
of the sixties, and though she was an invalid when her husband died, 
and her two sons volunteered for the war, she corageously kept the 
"home fires burning" She lived to be 91 years old. 

Early in the war a wayside hospital was established by the State Medi- 
cal Department at Wilson, among other towns accessible to the railroad. 
The women of this little town with their usual enthusiasm (which has 
endured until today), responded with Aid Societies at the first call for 
troops. The Wilson Light Infantry was one of the honorable military 
organizations in North Carolina before the war, and the girls of Wilson 
were busy equipping these boys. 

At the end of the war when everything was in chaos the women were 
terrified because the town came very nearly being burned, owing to the 
fact that two Yankee prisoners had been put to death by Wheeler's 
men. The quick, cool command of the situation by Mr. Geo. W. Blount, 
the mayor, saved these women and children their homes, as the Federals 
were made to see that the citizens of the town were not responsible. 



Reign of Terror in Elizabeth City 



"They played their part 'mid saddening scenes, 
'Wars cloud on land and sea." 



We have read of the sufferings of the women of New Bern, Wash- 
ington, Fayetteville, and many other places of our beloved State, but the 
women of Elisabeth City in its reign of terror have few rivals in the 
agony of the sixties. That gifted historian, Col. Richard Creecy, has 
left us a vivid picture of the trying period before and during the bom- 
bardment of Elizabeth City, early in February, 1862. The women of 
this town had zealously cared for the wounded and sick from Roanoke 
Island and Hatteras, and when the outrage to life and property began 



66 Worth Carolina "Women 

they felt paralysed. As the bombardment began these delicately ma' 
tured women bravely started for the country to seek places of safety. 
They were afoot, shoe tops deep in mud and slush, bedraggled, wretched. 
Mrs. Elliott and Mrs. Martin with their children started on foot for 
Oxford, while many mothers were vainly looking for their children 
amongst the terrible pandemonium. The worst features of human na- 
ture was developed on every side with its horors of bummers, pillage and 
rapine. This was a dark and bloody occasion and has scarcely a parallel 
in the State's history. How these women of the Albermarle section 
lived through those days will never be known. All honor to them. 

The ladies of the beautiful home, "Cedar Vale," took part in an im- 
portant event that occurred in the vicinity of Elisabeth City. These 
ladies entertained one hundred Confederate prisoners, after effecting 
their escape from a Federal transport which was carrying them to a 
Northern fortress. 

Landing at Cape Henry, after they had seized the ship which was 
manned by twenty Federal officers, these hundred Confederates crossed 
the Pasquotank river, going on through the swamp, and landed on 
Yeopin creek, back of "Cedar Vale." 

All the women in the neighborhood sent provisions of all kinds to 
these poor soldiers, besides sending cars and wagons to hasten them on 
their way. They were carried by river to the railroad, thence on to 
Richmond. 

An interesting incident is given to us by Mrs. Molly E. Fearing of 
Elizabeth City: 

"My husband, Captain Fearing, had charge of Fort Barstow at Roa- 
noke Island and made a brave resistance. He stood by his gun until 
blood ran from his ears and nose but he did not stop fighting. Gen- 
eral Burnside the Federal commander said, "Bring me that plucky little 
rebel, I want to see him and introduce him to my staff.' 1 '' There was a 
Fearing on General Burnside's staff also. A few months later, as my 
husband was on a furlough from his wounds, he was arrested for a Con- 
federate spy. Just as they were ready to put him to death a Captain 
from Burnside's staff happened to come up and recognize Capt. Fearing, 
said, "I will answer for this man, he is not a spy, he is a regular commis- 
sioned officer in the Confederate service." 

My mother had a most exciting time when she ran the blockade to 



of the Confederacy 67 

get quinine and sugar for her children, leaving a six weeks old baby at 
home. She was stopped at the line of pickets who said her pass was 
not for the whole way. 

Though we have mentioned a number of the towns and communities 
who bore the brunt of warfare, yet there are many communities, es' 
pecially along the coast, which suffered more than history can ever re- 
cord. The women who heard the boom of cannons of Federal gunboats 
every night, as they sang their babies to sleep, little knew whether their 
home would be shelled before morning. 



Around Edenton and the Albemarle Section 

(The Ironclad Ship "Albemarle" Christened by Miss Spottswood) 

Miss Mary E. Moore, one of our honored "Daughters 1 ' from Eden- 
ton, gives these interesting recollection of the north-eastern part of the 
State. 

"I have been requested to furnish some reminiscences from this section 
of the war between the States. Reluctantly, I draw aside the veil of 
the past and live over again those dark days of the sixties that met me 
at the threshold of womanhood. 

"For months our country had been in the throes of unrest; rumors 
of war from all sides that finally culminated in the bombardment of Fort 
Sumpter, that ushered in the crudest war of the 19th century. Father 
against son, brother against brother, friend against friend. 

"The time is long past — 
The scene is afar" 

and many incidents of those times have faded from my memory, but there 
are others burnt into my brain that can never fade. 

"I recall one bright April day in 1861, the militia of the Co. gathered 
on our green to raise companies to defend the homes our fathers gave us 
and claim the States rights that are ours. Addresses were made explain- 
ing the issues of the day, while enrolling officers wrote the names of 
volunters eager for the fray. Now and again they met with a snag as 



68 North Carolina 'Women 

I recall this incident an officer, book in hand, approached a youngster 
who had probably never before been out of sight of home, for those were 
not the days of automobiles, "Come my boy, give us your name and we 
will make a soldier of you. 1 ' "No, siree, I don't want to fight." "Why 
man, your honor is involved, what is life worth without your honor? 1 '' 
"Wuth! what's my life wuth!, why it's wuth a heap." With great dis' 
gust the poor officer turned away and said, "Well, in Heaven's name, 
go home and enjoy it." 

"We raised two full companies, one for six months, commanded by 
Capt. James K. Marshall, the other commanded by Capt. T. L. Skinner, 
enlisted for the war, had the proud distinction of being mustered in as 
Co. A., 1st Regt. N. C. State Troops. Of these many never returned. 
Their Captain and 1st Lieut, fell near Richmond and lie buried in St. 
Pauls Church yard, Edenton. The strength of our manhood gone, the 
old men and boys, some only twelve and fourteen, formed a home guard, 
doing picket and courier duty, and running the blockade with what we 
could raise to help feed the army, for with the fall of Roanoke, we were 
in Yankee lines, our waters often filled with gunboats and the only way 
we could reach what we called Dixie was by running the blockade across 
Chowan river. 

"General Beauregard's call for the bells to be cast into cannon which 
gave rise to the beautiful poem, "Melt the Bells," met with prompt res' 
ponse, and quickly were gathered together the Episcopal and Methodist 
bells, town clock, Academy and ship-yard dinner bells, preserving ket' 
ties, everything that contained bell metal and shipped to Richmond, cast 
into cannon, formed into a battery and manner by our native boys, under 
the command of Capt. Wm. Bedham. They did good service, never 
suffered defeat, surrendered at the close of the war. The last shot fired 
by old St. Paul, was picked up by one of the company, and now rests 
as a priceless treasure in the vault of St. Paul's Church, Edenton. The 
Baptist bell was not given, not from any want of patriotism, but it was 
built into the spire of the church, which required carpenters to take it 
down — we had none, they were all where they should have been, at the 
front. 

"These were dark days, but we women worked on and hoped on, till 
our noble Stonewall Jackson fell, when we felt the die was cast. 

"There were many incidents I might recall, for memory's storehouse 



of the Confederacy 59 

holds many, some ludicrous, some pathetic, did I not fear I might grow 
prolix, for I have yet to tell the most important of all; the naval battle 
I witnessed on our beautiful Albemarle sound. 

"May the 5th, 1864, Capt. Cook, commander of the Albemarle, more 
familiarly known as the Ram, steamed down the Roanoke river, followed 
in the distance by two tenders, the Bombshell and Cotton Plant. Soon 
the Yankee squadron, seven well-armed gun-boats, the Mattabessett, Sas- 
sacus, Wyhisine, Whitehead, Miami, Com. Hull and Ceres, hove in sight, 
Capt. Smith in command. At two o'clock, they approached in double 
line of battle, the Mattabessett in advance. They proceeded to surround 
the Albemarle and hurled at her their heaviest shot, only about 1 00 yards 
away. The Albemarle responded at once, but her boats were soon shot 
away and smokestack riddled. Still she fought on, tho one of her guns 
was silenced and steel plating broken. The Sassacus kept in constant 
motion, coming nearer each time, till seizing her best opportunity, with 
all steam on, rammed the Albemarle just above the water mark, causing 
every timber to creak, and near sent her to the bottom with all on board. 
Soon our brave little gunboat righted herself and fired a broadside at her 
enemy, with such telling effect, tearing its way thru from stem to stern, 
bursting her boiler, scalding to death seven of her men and wounding 
many others. 

"Thus the battle kept up till five o'clock, when we saw the Albe- 
marle slowly steaming back to the mouth of the river, not beaten for she 
still held her own, but her fuel was exhausted and to keep up steam 
to reach Plymouth, necessitated tearing away all inside woodwork which 
together with bedding, clothing and provisions, was cast into the fur- 
nace. Thus our brave little Albemarle escaped capture and landed at 
Plymouth, covered with wounds and with glory. 

"The war was nearing its close, tho some of our bloodiest battles were 
yet to be fought. We were worn out, and in April, 1856, overcome 
by numbers, and to save further sacrifices of life, our ever faithful Lee, 
grand even in defeat, surrendered. 

"Soon the remnants of our army reached home with 

"Bro\en hearts and bro\en hopes 
But now 'tis Auld lang syne." 
"Never again will the Stars and Bars wave over the Southern Con- 
federacy. That dream is past. The Blue and the Gray are merged 



70 Horih Carolina Women 

into the Khaki, worn by our boys overseas, where bearing aloft the Stars 
and Stripes, the proudest flag that floats over land and sea, they turned 
the tide of battle in the great world war." 



Miss Lena H. Smith, the historian of the U. D. C. Chapter, Scotland 
Neck, has written a most interesting story of the building of the Ironclad 
Albemarle. Her father, Peter E. Smith, had charge of the construction 
of this famous North Carolina vessel and her uncle, Gilbert Elliott, the 
finances. Miss Smith tells of the launching of this vessel at its navy 
yard on the river below Halifax. This was an occasion of great im- 
portance and Miss Mary Spottswood was the Sponsor who christened 
the ship by breaking a bottle of wine on her prow and naming her "The 
Albemarle." 



of the Confederacy *H 



HEROIC WOMEN OF WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA 



"For they were loyal, and they were brave, 
And we can now but spea\ their praise." 

The women of the western part of North Carolina were amongst the 
most heroic and loyal of our State, ever ready for noble work in the Con' 
federacy. 

While the women of the eastern and central part of North Carolina 
were suffering every indignity and persecution at the hands of Sher-. 
man's "bummers" the women further west were enduring similar treat- 
ment from General Stoneman and Col. Kirk's troops. There are hun- 
dreds of cases in which real heroism was shown. 

When the men of Western North Carolina joined the forces of the 
Confederate army, their women folk were not only left unprotected with- 
in the line of battle or the famous March of Sherman to the Sea, but were 
in danger of those unprincipled men who could not join either side and 
laid out to evade the law and lived by robbing women on whom the re- 
sponsibility of providing food and clothing for their children rested. 

This thrilling story is given by Dr. Archibald Henderson, of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, who received it from the lips of his grand- 
mother, Mrs. William Cain, (Sarah Jane Bailey) a daughter of Judge 
Lancaster Bailey, of Asheville, N. C. 

"In March 1865, anticipating trouble for the town of Asheville, and 
its inhabitants, General James G. Martin, advanced to meet the Federal 
Commander, General Gillam, in order to make the best terms possible. 
The meeting was cordial, and about noon the northern detachment 
marched away. After supper that night, the Bailey family heard a ter- 
rible noise and discovered that it was northern marauders from Gil- 
liam's division, who were riding up on the porch on horseback. They 
smashed open the glass doors of the verandah and struck heavily upon 
the head of the venerable Judge Bailey, who had seized a gun to drive 
them back. They rifled the trunks and boxes; took the wedding rings 
of mother and daughter, as well as wedding gifts, jewelry, and gold and 



72 Worth Carolina Women 

silver coins which they found — all the while screaming, threatening, yell- 
ing, with brandished torches. Thomas Bailey, the Judge's son, sur- 
rendered to save his father's life and went along with the Yankee ban- 
ditti as their prisoner. They wanted to return and "kill the old man," 
but were disuaded by their prisoner. Nevertheless they returned and 
fired several shots through the door at the courageous^ old judge who 
narrowly escaped his life. Next morning, several villanious looking Yan- 
kees came and took away the family's supply of bacon. The judge was 
insulted on the street by a negro in blue uniform; Mrs. Henry Middleton 
literally fought with the Yankee soldiers in the effort to prevent them 
from stealing her husband's watch; and Mrs. James W. Patton, who was 
wearing her watch, was choked almost to death by a Yankee soldier who 
tore it from her. 

"Thomas Bailey was not unkindly treated by his captors; and doubt' 
less because of the inconvenience of guarding him, they released him 
before reaching Tennessee. There prevailed in Asheville a reign of terror, 
however. Negro troops under General Howley committed nameless 
atrocities in the neighborhood of Asheville; and those apprehended were 
tried by drum head court martial, and four of them shot. Judge Bailey 
went to see the Federal General Brown, to protect against the outrageous 
conduct of his troops; but, although profuse in promises to remedy mat' 
ter, the befuddled general was too intoxicated to remember to keep them. 
Eventually a young Federal officer, of a Michigan company, was secured 
as a personal guard; and under his kind and efficient guard, further 
outrages were prevented." 

Mrs James W. Patton and her sister, of Asheville, were dragged from 
their sick beds, their persons searched and their valuables taken. 

Some of the bravest, most cheerful women of the Confederacy were 
the wives of seven Irish men who entered the army from their settlement 
near Round Knob, where they had been employed on the unfinished 
railroad to the mountains. Every week two of these women walked 
eighteen miles over a rough road, to Asheville, to ask for help for the 
destitute families of that vicinity. Mrs. Nicholas Woodfin, one of 
Asheville's splendid workers, set aside a room for their use where they 
could rest after their arduous journey and assisted them in "collecting". 
These Irish women by their amusing wit, gave moral support and cheer 
to many women who were of a higher social sphere. 



of the Confederacy % 

One woman of Buncombe county, who was alone with five children 
and an old colored man, had finished her winter's supply of cloth and 
thread and was making a pot of dye in the yard one day so that the cloth 
could be dyed and dried before the night of the following day. After 
boiling her bark or leaves she had removed it from the liquid and was 
coming from the house with a handful of the precious copperas to 
thoroughly dissolve over night, when she saw a group of men approach' 
ing. These men were a band of the much-dreaded robbers. They 
forced the woman, children and colored man to sit quietly while they 
tore all the blankets from the beds, took her best clothes and all of the 
baby's clothes, her choicest dishes, and the undyed cloth and thread. 
Nothing was left her but the pot of liquid and the remains of the cop- 
peras which had nearly all melted in her clinched hand. 



Miss Emma L. Rankin, one of Lenoir's most beloved women, who has 
gone to rest, has left a host of interesting experiences of Stoneman's raid. 
This article has been preserved in a memorial booklet of this sainted wo- 
man of the sixties. While occupying the position of honored teacher 
in Col. Logan Carson's house near Marion, McDowell county, Miss Ran- 
kin felt the full terror of Stoneman's raid through western North Caro- 
lina, when (with two defenseless women and children) they stood their 
ground courageously while the ruffians pointed pistols at their heads, 
making terrible threats of what they would do if they did not disclose 
the hiding place of hidden treasures. One of the gang set fire to the 
house to frighten the ladies, but extinguished it when they saw the 
bravery they exhibited. When night came on with all the terrors of 
darkness, these intrepid women locked themselves into their rooms. In 
the middle of the night rough voices demanded with kicks and oaths 
that the door be opened. On forcing it open one insolently demanded 
a breast pin which Miss Rankin wore, saying that if she did not give 
it up that they would take it from her. Refusing, Miss Rankin picked 
up a large iron shovel from the fireplace saying, "You dare not touch 
me." "Dare not," he said, "I fear not God or man." "I fear God," 
she said, "and you cannot harm me." To the utter astonishment and 



74 Worth Carolina Women 

relief of this courageous woman the ruffian retreated, leaving her weak 
kneed and trembling, but thankful to God for her deliverance. Even 
these ruthless men could not fail to admire the splendid spirit of Miss 
Emma Rankin, who was an example of the faith, courage and self 're' 
liance of a good woman in the midst of danger. Her name is a loving 
household word in many homes, whose children she has brought nearer 
to God by her teachings. 

In her "Last Ninety Days of the War" Mrs. Cornelia Spencer, gives 
incidents of courage, of the women of Western North Carolina. 

Mrs. W. W. Scott, whose home was near Lenoir, was alone at her 
residence at the time Stoneman's Federal troops were moving from Cald- 
well to Burke county. A Federal soldier heavily armed rode up to the 
house and demanded food. While he was enjoying his meal, Mrs. Scott 
seized his carbine and threatened to shoot if he made an outcry, made 
him a prisoner and turned him over to the house guard. • Mrs. Scott 
was the mother of Mrs. W. W. Scott, Jr., formerly editor of the Lenoir 
'' t Topic. , '' Such fearlessness was found in many of our Confederate 
women who were made of fortitude beyond belief. 

Mrs. Vaughn, of Lenoir, drew a pistol to resist the marauders but 
was overpowered. 

Mrs. Harper, another Lenoir lady, was ill in bed and a brutal soldier 
placed a shovel full of red hot coals by her side to make her disclose her 
hidden valuables. 

Mrs. Boone Clark, of Lenoir, was seised by the throat and almost 
killed (with her little girl) the ruffians repeatedly calling her a liar and 
other degrading names. 

The women of Salisbury and Rowan county did much to relieve the 
suffering of the Confederate soldiers, there being three hospittals in Salis- 
bury where they worked untiringly. Mrs. Mary A. Wrenn and her 
daughter, Miss Betty, had charge of the largest of these hospitals, even 
selling their jewelry, silver, and other clothing to buy food for the pa- 
tients. 

Mrs. Montgomery had charge of the Wayside Hospital and Mrs. 
Jessie McCallum of the hospital at the old garrison. Besides there were 
many enthusiastic women workers among the sick and wounded. 

The "Soldiers Relief Association' 1 of Rowan county was organised 
early in the war with Mrs. D. A. Davis and Miss Camelia Brown as 



of the Confederacy 7$ 

president and vice-president, and rendered valuable aid throughout the 
terrible four years. 

Mrs. Sloan Johnston, a loyal Confederate, relieved the suffering, not 
only of our Confederate soldiers but also the Federals imprisoned at 
Salisbury, and by her pleading secured the release of many prominent 
Salisbury men who were thrown into prison by Stoneman's raiders. 

General Stoneman destroyed not only the arsenal and foundry at 
Salisbury, but the public stores (collected from Richmond, Columbia, 
Charlotte, Danville) the length of four squares in flames. The women 
and children for months half starved and half clothed, saw quantities 
of provisions burning in their streets like so much rubbish. All the 
precious medicines, valued at $100,000.00 in gold was destroyed, leav- 
ing women and children helpless in sickness. 

Mrs. Margaret E. Ramsay showed the spirit of these other corageous 
women when a Confederate soldier, as he was being fired on by Federals, 
fell on her piasza. Though the balls fell thick about her, and, alone with 
her little children, she went out to him and managed to get him inside 
her house, where she nursed and stimulated him through the day until 
the physician could arrive, and assisted in a surgical operation. 

The home of Mrs. Frank Shobert was invaded and the brutal soldiers 
dashed into the privacy of her bed-room, demanding her valuables. This 
gentle, loving woman, lay in bed with her infant beside her, a few days 
old. After looting the house, as the soldiers departed one of them was 
shot by a Confederate on the piazxa of Mrs. Shobert's home. 

A mile out from Salisbury a train was fired on without any demand 
for surrender, and among the ladies on board were the widow and 
daughter of General Leonidas Polk. The cars being set on fire, the 
ladies were forced to see their luggage burned in which were cherished 
relics of Gen. Polk. 

The women of High Point and Statesville, half starved too, saw quan- 
tities of provisions destroyed when the Yankees fired the Confederate 
government stores there. It was said the Iredell county women were 
almost all in mourning, as no county suffered more in the loss of her 
best and bravest sons in the Confederate army. The Yankees deprived 
the women along their western route of the comfort of their decrepit 
old men and very young boys by marching them off as prisoners. The 
women of Lenoir were vehemently cursed for giving food to these starved 



76 T^orth Carolina Womert 

and exhausted old men, when they halted over night in this "rebellious 
little hole" as the Yankees called Lenoir. 

In Statesville, it is recorded that the room of a woman in childbirth 
was even invaded, the brutality not stopping even on the threshold of 
life. 

The fearless Mrs. James Camcill, of Wataugua county, who after re- 
peated insults, was made a prisoner in h~r own home, by Kirk. 

Mrs. Paxton, near Morganton, was locked in her room and tortured 
for not disclosing her valuables. 



of the Confederacy 77 



WIT AND REPARTEE 

''Woman s wit is greater than mans wisdom. 
"Wit is precious as the vehicle of sense." 



Many clever sayings have been handed down from these women of 
the Sixties, full of humor and wit, that show their spirit and brilliancy. 
We know of a young "tar heel" girl, a brilliant talker, while her home 
was being pillaged by Sherman's "bummers" made a speech narrating 
the cause of the war, its beginning in the days of nullification and se' 
cession, quoting John C. Calhoun's speech in Congress down on through 
until Sherman's men reached her own home. The soldiers closed about 
her listening, their hands unconsciously dropping the articles they had 
stolen. As she ceased they said to her, "We never knew the South had 
so much to fight for, if we had we would never draw gun or sword." 

The courage displayed even by the young girls in the Confederacy 
was wonderful, and often their bright answers, even in the face of per' 
sonal danger, showed a spirit that couldn't be put down, showing that 
woman's wit is greater than man's wisdom. 

While the Yankees were burning the home of Rev. Colin Shaw, in 
Bladen county, (he being away at the front and the only inmates being 
three defenseless women) Miss Mollie Shaw, his lovely eighteen year 
old daughter, sat at her piano playing her beloved "Dixie," until the 
flames almost enveloped her. 

When Federal officers had their headquarters in the grove of 
"Sharon," the home of Dr. Jonathan North, (then State Treasurer) 
they asked his charming young daughter, Miss Mary, to play while they 
sang the Northern song, "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys are 
Marching," whereupon she replied that she would do so, but she would 
transpose the verses into those with southern words. 



78 Worth Carolina Women 

On another occasion when the Yankees were occupying the refugee 
country home of Miss Nellie Worth, of Wilmington, she was compelled 
by them to play the piano. She vowed to herself she would play noth- 
ing but Southern songs, so surrounded by her "deadly enemies" (to 
quote her) "I cooly sang the Bonnie Blue Flag and Dixie with all my 
might, breathing intense fire and hate in my soul in thoSe two songs. 11 

Mrs. Croaker was a Kinston character noted for her repartee. A 
Yankee chaplain told her that God had sent freedom as a gift to the 
slaves. 

"That might be so, 11 she replied, "but if it is, the devil came to bring 
the gift. 11 

He quoted Sherman's famous "War is Hell. 11 She said, Sherman 
ought to know his native customs. I suppose he knows all there is to 
know about hell. It's his home talk. 11 

Mrs. Polly Chadwick of New Bern, one day saw a Federal soldier 
drummed out of his regiment with a board strapped on his back and 
the word "theif 11 on it. She called out, "What has the poor fellow 
done? 11 "Been stealing. 11 "Stealing, 1 '' said Mrs. Polly, "why, if you 
drummed out all who stole, there would not be pine trees enough in 
North Carolina to furnish planks for their backs." 

An old lady of Fayetteville was seated at a dinner party with the 
Federal officers who were occupying her home. "General," she said, 
to quote her own words, "Aint you going to ask a blessing?" "Well, 
Grandma," he replied, "I don't know how, won't you do it for me? So 
I asked a blessing and prayed a short prayer. I asked the Lord to turn 
their hearts away from their wickedness and make them go back to their 
hemes and stop fighting us, and everything. I was afraid to tell them 
I told the Lord and they couldn't say a word. 

Miss Sarah Ann Tillinghast of Fayetteville, showed her puritan an- 
cestry when she stood on her door-steps, while her house was being 
rannsacked, and with true Puritan fervor, read for the benefit of her 
unwelcome Yankee visitors, the 108th Psalm, wherein the Psalmist com- 
mends the thought that the days of the unmerciful "be few" 1 and that 
their names be "blotted out." 

These stories are told by the "old inhabitants" of Fayetteville: 

General Sherman came to Fayetteville by the Camden road, and on 
his way stopped at the old Nelson house on that road, in the Rockfish sec- 



of the Confederacy 79 

fish section of what was then Cumberland county, now Hoke county. 
Here took place a very pretty little dialogue between the famous com- 
mander and Mrs. Nelson, the proud and defiant mistress of the house. 
The day was March 10th; and in' greeting the invader Mrs. Nelson in- 
formed that the 10th of March was a momentuous day in her life. 

First was the visit of General LaFayette in 1824, when he stopped 
at her house and kissed her hand. On that day in 1845 three persons 
lay dead in her house, one being a brother slain by his brother's hand. 
"And now, on March 10th, 1865," she added, "you come with your 
robbers, to rob us." "Madam," replied General Sherman, "I assure 
you that we will not rob you or harm you in any way, and, further, I, 
too, shall kiss your hand." And he did. And Mrs. Nelson was not 
robbed. 

Another maiden lady of Cumberland county, Miss Margaret Shaw, 
one of the "salt of the earth" showed her spirit when after occupying 
her home for the night, the Yankee officer asked if he could bury his 
men in her field, she replied, "with the greatest pleasure." On being 
asked by her invited guests, the Yankee soldiers, on how she felt that 
morning, she replied, "I feel like David did when the hosts of hell were 
encamped round about him." 

Not far from Fayetteville there lived an elderly maiden lady, who 
when she heard that Sherman's "bummers" were coming, hid her jewelry 
and silver. When the bummers arrived they commanded her to tell 
them where she had hidden her treahures. When she refused they 
caught her and choked her until they thought she would yield. When 
she was released and had caught her breath, she asked, "Why, do you 
think, did I hide my things from you?" 

"To keep us from getting them, of course," was the reply. 

"Then, don't you think I'd be a fool to tell you where I hid them? 
Til never tell you if you choke me to death." 

They left her, but the purple marks of their clutches were on her 
throat for several days afterwards. 

In the McNeill family there were several daughters ranging from 16 
to 24 years of age. When Sherman's army arrived a neighbor came to 
Mr. McNeill and asked him to bring the young ladies to his home as 
several officers were quartered there and that he had procured a guard 
from them and they would be comparatively safe. The invitation was 



80 • Worth Carolina Women 

gladly accepted. One afterinoon while officers, young ladies of the fam' 
ily and visitors were all sitting together on the piawa, a negro near who 
belonged to Mr. McNeill, came to the steps and asked one of the ladies 
to show him the officer who had charge of the grist mill on the premises. 
Then very humbly, with hat in hand, the negro said to the officer, 
"Your soldiers have taken everything we had to 1 * eat, and my mistress 
sent me to ask you for some corn meal to make bread for the children. 
The officer in a very lordly way announced, "Well, suppose I don't 
give it to you, what would you do?" 

"■We'll have to trust in Providence, sir," said the negro. 

"Didn't you know that Providence died some time ago?" said the of' 
ficer. 

'Yes'sah, I knows he did, but he riz agin," was the humble answer. 

There was some clapping from the "rebel" part of the audience but 
the negro got his meal. 



of the Confederacy 8 i 



LITERARY WOMEN OF THE SIXTIES 



'Sound judgment the ground of writing well. 



"A perfect woman nobly planned, 
To warn, to counsel and command." 



It has been said of Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer that she was like 
some jewel, "full of fire." 

The work of this brilliant woman stands out differently from that of 
any other of North Carolina's women of the Sixties. 

Her "Last Ninety Days of the War," written in '66, (at the request 
of Governor Vance) is invaluable as a vivid and true picture of those 
last terrible days and the beginning of the reconstruction period in this 
State. This history, a classic, depicts North Carolina's part in the strug- 
gle and is one of the greatest things accomplished by any of our women 
of that day, being written by one who saw and endured an active part 
in this great drama. Her children's history of North Carolina is al- 
so a true story of the State. 

Mrs. Hope Summerell Chamberlain in her recent book "Old Days in 
Chapel Hill," has made a valuable contribution to the literary history 
of this period of our State, by compiling the journals and letters of 
Mrs. Spencer. She has recalled to the present generation the splendid 
services of this woman of the Sixties, "who was the equal in intellect and 
worth of any other woman in America." Mrs. Chamberlain says that 
the idea in writing this book was to show Northern readers that Sher- 
man's campaign methods and those of others were unnecessarily severe 
and harsh, and to give as much well authenticated personal experience 
as possible from all over the State. Mrs. Spencer has left to the State 
many letters and newspaper articles which are of great literary and his- 
torical value. 

Her services to her State during these dark days were direct and per- 



82 "North Carolina 'Women 

sonal, having been friend and counsellor of Governor Vance (redeemer 
of the State from reconstruction) and other of the State's leaders, who 
sought her advice frequently. Being a resident of Chapel Hill, many 
of the brilliant men who attended the University during and following 
the war, were influenced by her remarkable personality and through 
them she contributed greatly toward shaping the destinies of North 
Carolina. Her great work was denouncing the outrages of reconstruc 
tion and calling aloud, with her pen, to the people to be steadfast, brave 
and true. To her was due largely, the overthrow of the carpet bagger 
and his exodus from the State. 

She wrote and spoke and prayed unceasingly for the overthrow of the 
foul gang that were polutting her beloved University hall in these re- 
construction days. The University, which had remained open through 
all the horrors of the war, was closed to students and the dormitories were 
turned into stables for horses of cut throat Federal soldiers sent to over- 
come the Southern people in their resistance to carpet bag government. 
Cornelia Spencer thundered through the press of the State, defiance to 
oppressive authority and to the sons of the University everywhere she 
uttered rallying cries for the revival of this seat of learning. 

Her labors and prayers were answered and she saw the University 
restored to it's own, a day of triumph for her to whom was most due 
(except Dr. Kemp Battle) it's re-opening. 

Throughout the four dreary years of the war she encouraged and 
cheered the students who remained at Chapel Hill, being their comrade 
and counselor, besides working for the soldiers who were away fighting 
and caring for many needy families. 

The downfall of her State brought forward Mrs. Spencer's remarkable 
ability, knowledge of men and events in North Carolina in its critical 
period of war and reconstruction was greater than that of any man or 
woman of that day. Her name should be placed high in the history of 
North Carolina's women of the Sixties. 

In her book, "The Last Ninety Days of the War," Mrs. Spencer pays 
this tribute to her fellow women of the Confederacy. 

'When I forget you, O ye daughters of my country, your labors of 
love, your charity, faith, and patience, all through the dark and bloody 
day; lighting up the gloom of war with tender graces of women's devo- 
tion and self-denial, and now in your energy and cheerful submission 



of the Confederacy 83 

in toil and poverty and humiliation; when I cease to do homage to your 
virtues and your excellencies, may "my right hand forget its coming, 
and my voice be in silent dust." 



"Sing me the song that to you were so dear, long, long ago." 



Mrs. Frances Fisher Tiernan, of Salisbury, known to the literary 
world as "Christian Reid," has given a name to add to the State's wo- 
men of the Sixties of which we are justly proud. Her father was Col- 
onel Charles F. Fisher, who as commander of the 6th N. C. regi- 
ment, gave his life at the first battle of Mannasses. Out of her sorrow 
in his death (tho in her teens) grew her love for the Confederacy, and 
the history of the South was a passion with her.. She was the first 
historian of the N. C. Division U. D. C, and until her death, honorary 
President. She gave of her unquenchable spirit to keep history straight 
in the Southern cause, and placed the gifts of her mind, heart and pen 
at the service of the South, writing that beautiful and stirring war drama, 
"Under the Southern Cross," 

This was later played before scores of Southern audiences, resulting 
in the creation of many enduring monuments in bronze and stone to the 
memory of that perfect army of our Confederacy. 

As a novelist we halo her name in especial administration for the true 
and perfect pictures she drew of our Confederacy, and we Daughters 
of today owe a deep debt to her for her contribution to the Southern 
Cause. 

The soldiers of her father's regiment adored her and at the sight of 
her and the mention of her name they would almost stampede the house. 

In 1874 with one stroke of her pen, "Christian R.eid" gave North 
Carolina the name by which it was to become famous around the world 
— The Land of Sky — by a most delightful book describing most vividly 
the grandeur of our mountains. The greatest literary honor ever paid 
"Christian Reid" was the presentation to her of a gold medal by a dis- 
tinguished French Literary Society after her story, "The Lady Dela 
Crucis" had been translated into French. She was also made a member 
of the exclusive society "The Order of the Golden Rose of France." It 



84 'Nprih Carolina. Women 

has been said of her that "She was like unto a harp of a thousand strings 
vibrating with harmony, music falling from every string, the cadence 
lingering to charm the ear, dying never but living on and on down the 
ages." 

There is nothing more powerfully dramatic and compelling than her 
wonderful patriotic poem "Gloria Victis," a hymn of N triumphant victory 
in honor of the Confederate soldiers' bravery. Her poem "Regret," a 
refrain of the heart is considered by many one of the finest peoms by 
any North Carolinian. Her "Valerie Aylmer," written in the Sixties, 
refrain of the heart, is considered by many one of the finest poems by 
while she was still a young woman, stands today a work of art in the 
literary world. 

When the world war came no one was more devoted to the allied 
cause than she. Though ill and scarcely able to leave her room, she made 
some of the most inspiring speeches given in Salisbury, being a gifted 
public speaker. 



Mrs. Mary Bayard Clarke, a daughter of Thomas Polk Devereux, of 
Raleigh, was a literary genius of the Sixties, of whom North Carolina 
is very proud. This typical Confederate woman, whom both Raleigh 
and New Bern claimed, used her pen with poetry and prose in telling 
the story of the South, her work as a poet being especially valuable. The 
wife of a Confederate soldier, Col. William J. Clarke,, her heart was 
with the South and the Old North State always, and in verse she poured 
forth the sufferings and glory of the Confederacy. It has been said 
that one of her poems "Must I Forget," is not excelled by Byron, and 
that she was akin to Wordsworth in style. Her poem "General Lee 
At the Battle of the Wilderness" has a note of the sublime, while the 
"Rebel Sock" contains a humorous touch. Her "Social Reminiscences 
of Noted North Carolinians" is a collection of interest and her "CarO' 
lina Carols" contain fine contributions of her own as well as of others 
(written in 1854.) Mrs. Clarke also contributed to the "Land We 
Love," one of the most interesting of her writings being her character 
sketch from the life of "Aunt Abby, the Irrepressible." 

Mrs. Clark's pen name in poetry was "Tenelia," and in prose "Stuart 
Leigh." 



of the Confederacy 85 

During the reconstruction period she supported many who were in 
need, by her writings. 



Miss Sarah Ann Tillinghast, of Fayetteville, in 65, gave to the South 
a beautiful poem "Answer to the Conqueror Banner," a fit mate to 
Father Ryan's famous poem telling us to "Love It, Weep It, For Its 
Past." 

Her poem "Carolina's Dead," was written as a memorial day ode to 
our fallen heroes, and is a beautiful tribute to the men in Gray. 

Miss Tillinghast wrote many interesting sketches of war days in her 
community and was noted for her witty answers to the Yankees when 
they were occupying Fawetteville. 



Mrs. Fannie Downing has left some beautiful verses which were pub' 
lished in the "Land We Love," a magazine edited by General D. H. 
Hill, just after the war. Her "Memorial Flowers" is a lengthy and 
charming poem that breathes the love every southern woman feels for 
memorial day. Her "Reconstruction" is also a poem of real literary 
merit as well as numbers of others that have been loved and admired. 
Mrs Downing though a native of Virginia, came to this State as a young 
woman, to make her home in Mecklenburg county. 



Mrs. A. L. Pendelton, of Warrenton, has contributed greatly to the 
literary and historical work of this State, since a girl in the Sixties. This 
lady of eighty-nine is a living page from the Old South,and her literary 
style is beautiful and fine. Besides many poems of real merit her book- 
let entitled "Last Words of Confederate Heroes," is filled with tributes 
to these men who fought with Lee. 

The daughter of Mrs. Pendelton, Mrs. Kathrine Arrington, is to place 
the name of this devoted real "Daughter of the Confederacy" on a bronze 
tablet in the Memorial Hall at Stone oMuntain, a most deserved tribute 
to the one who has for years given of her best to her Southland; and since 
its organization an ardent U. D. C. 



86 tyorth Carolina Women 

As a young woman in the Confederacy, Mrs. Pendelton endured 
hardships and self-sacrifices, and her recollections of the Sixties are told 
in a most interesting way. In describing a journey from Greenville to 
Warrenton, during the war, Mrs. Pendelton says she and her sister had 
to sit on boxes in a freight car surrounded by sides of bacon. Her 
brother remarked, as he lifted her in the car, "You "have been contem' 
plating a trip to Europe, and you ought to be happy now for you are in 
the middle of Greece." 

Mrs. Pendelton gives these lines as a preface to her "Last Words of 
Confederate Heroes:" 

"The men who went to the tented field, 
And the women who bade them never to yield 
To the invading foe, are passing away — 
Ahl few of our heroes are living today; 
Few women who waited, and wept and wrought 
Are left now to tell how bravely they fought. 
We exulted o'er victories, wept at defeat, 
And "lest we forget," I here will repeat 
The last words of heroes on whom we relied, 
For nobly they lived and nobly they died." 



The first woman to edit a newspaper in North Carolina was Rachael 
Holton, who became the editor of the "North Carolina Whig," formerly 
the Charlotte Journal, on the death of her husband, E. J. Holton, soon 
after the war began. This plucky woman felt that the paper should be 
continued at this critical period when news travelled so slowly, so she 
put her shoulder to the wheel and capably carried it on 'til '63, when it 
was discontinued on account of the scarcity of paper. 

It is said that another reason for its ceasing publication was the fact 
that the chimney to the office fell down and there were no men available 
to put it back. 

Nor did the women forget that their children should be educated 
though their fathers and brothers were at the front. Teachers were 
scarce but many of our women filled the places vacated by the soldiers. 



of the Confederacy 87 

The boarding schools of St. Mary's, Raleigh, Greensboro, and Salem 
were kept open, as was the Charlotte Female Institute. 

From the second volume of Ashe's valuable history of North Carolina 
we learn that as the supply of school books diminished, that the efficient 
Mrs. Moore, of Raleigh, a daughter of the publisher, Mr. Branson, pre' 
pared a series of primers, readers and other books for use in the schools, 
Printing paper was so scare that it is said that some books were printed 
on wall paper. 

Capt. Ashe gives this extract from the report of 1863 of the State 
Superintendent of Common Schools, Rev. Calvin H. Wiley. This 
should be remembered by our citizens of today. 

"The future historian will add, as our crowning glory, that in the 
darkest hour of the Confederacy, when every nerve and muscle of the 
country were' wrought to the highest tension in a terrible and unparalleled 
struggle for existence and independence, North Carolina still supported 
a vigorous and beneficient system of free and public schools, and that 
they were attended by 50,000 of the children of her patriotic citizens. 1 '' 



88 J^orth Carolina Womeri 



CHRISTMAS DURING THE CONFEDERACY 



"It's getting dose to Chris'mus, 
Wid the chillun feeliri spry." 



The ingenuity shown by our women in playing the part of Santa Claus 
shows that though their hearts were breaking over their men at the front, 
still they gave happiness to their children by devising many attractive 
gifts, "making something out of nothing.'" 

In our call for reminiscences of "Christmas in the Confederacy," the 
delightful little glimpses of those days that have come from many of 
our survivors of that period, throughout the State, deserve a separate 
chapter in our "Women of the Sixties." In her story of Christmas in 
the Confederacy, Mrs. F. C. Roberts of New Bern has left us this charm' 
ing peep into her home in the Christmas of '64 : 

"Dark clouds were gathered around us, but the star of hope shone 
bright above us, and our faith was steadfast and unwavering. The 
year had been a hard one. Our resources were at the lowest ebb when 
Christmas confronted us. Stockings must be filled, gifts must be ready, 
children's faith in Santa Claus must be sustained, and how could all 
this be accomplished? My husband was home from the army on sick 
leave. It taxed our ingenuity, but the little ones must not be disap- 
pointed. He was skilled in the use of tools and made a cradle for one, 
a carriage for another and a cart for the little boy, while I ransacked 
trunks for odds and ends to make and dress dolls. They were, of course, 
"rag dolls with cheeks painted with poke-berries, eyes with indigo and 
hair with sumach berries. 

"Our ground-pea patch had yielded well, and we had laid by late ap- 
ples from our orchard, we had sorghum for candy and cakes. I had 
bartered a little salt for a do^en eggs. I drew people and animals on 
paper and Mammy Caroline laid them on her dough and with a sharp 
knife cut them out, thus making a fine menagerie. 



of the Confederacy 8§ 

"On Christmas Eve the children, white and black, brought evergreens 
and berries from the woods to decorate the parlor, making it a bower 
of fragrance and beauty. I had been so fortunate as to obtain tallow 
enough to fill a set of tallow moulds. So, for my Christmas illumination 
I had twelve elegant "dips," an improvement on a lightwood torch. I 
found twelve empty bottles to serve as candle sticks. These I hid among 
the evergreens. The stockings were hung "by the chimney with care," 
and Santa came! Verily and truly he had come, for the children had 
covered the hearthwith sand, and there on the sand were traces of his 
sleigh and the prints of the reindeer's feet. 

'It requires very little to make children happy. On Christmas morn' 
ing the the house rang with their cries of "Merry Christmas!" They 
were wild with delight. No expensive toys could have given more 
pleasure than the simple ones we had prepared for them. A big basket 
was filled wth animal cakes, apples and ground peas, and their nurses 
took them to the Quarters to distribute the contents to the little negroes. 
The older servants had the same, with the addition of cider for the wo- 
men and something stronger for the men. It was the best we could do 
and they seemed content. 

"Our dinner was frugal. It consisted of rice and peas in many forms 
with a desert of delicious cake, wine, ground-peas and apples. My 
cake was made of dried cherries, dried whortle-berries, candied water- 
melon rind and sorghum. When we returned to the parlor the candles 
hed been lighted. Here our guests took leave of us, and here ended one 
Christmas day in the Confederacy. 

Another recollection of Christmas in the Sixties is from Mrs. A. McA. 
Gainey of Cumberland County, who recalls her childhood days. 

"My Christmas of 1863 was a very happy one. Old Santa Claus 
gave me simple gifts but just as jolly as those in which my grandchildren 
of today are receiving. 

"On this special Christmas morning what should I find in 'my box?" 
A complete little loom Santa Claus had made with his own knife, a 
corn stalk bed with a rag doll in it which Mrs. Santa Claus had made 
were right there. My brother found to his delight a little wagon with 
spool wheels and a small wooden box body. His flute which furnished 
the noise for the day was made from a river lowland reed. But its 
tones were much more agreeable than the racket boxes we now have. 



90 Hprth Carolina Womeri 

"Were our stockings bulged from toe to top with apples, oranges, 
raisins, nuts, and store bought candy? Oh! No! Mrs. Santa Claus 
had been a very diligent, industrious, resourceful lady and had made 
ample provision for the satisfying of our "sweet tooth." She had in 
each of our boxes a nice package of molasses and honey candy which 
was full of big, nice black walnut goodies; and ginger cookies cut by her 
deft hands to strikingly resemble animals we knew. 

"Oh, yes! our Christmas was much more simple and our toys hand' 
made; but let no one for one minute think we were not pleased with them 
and far happier than the present day child who is ever wanting more." 



The story of our "Women of the Sixties" would not be complete with' 
out mentioning the old colored "mammies." What would o,ur Confed' 
erate women have done without the fidelity of these dear old loyal souls? 
Wherever her duties, in the field, kitchen, at the tub, spinning the wheel, 
nursing "de children" or waiting on "de big house," mammy did her 
part fathfully and lovingly, often being the comforter to her mistress 
when sad news came and sorrowing with the family in their grief. 

Miss Georgia Hicks has written a beautiful reminiscence of her old 
colored "mammy," Cynthia Hill. When all the other negroes of Col' 
onel Hill, of Faison, had gone or been driven away, Cynthia came to 
the house and told her old "Marster" she wanted to stay with him. 
Colonel Hill told her that she could and that he would care for her. 
She remained with the Hill family for over sixty years and her pride 
was great in her "white folks," to whom she was devoted. She was loved 
by all the children of the village and their greatest joy was to hear 
Cynthia tell tales of "before de war." During the last days of Mrs. 
Hill's life Cynthia was her faithful bodyguard, and when at last her 
spirit passed to the Beyond, this faithful old "slave" was buried in the 
family plot of the Hills, and her pallbearers were the boys (now grown 
to manhood) whom she had nursed in their infancy. 



of the Confederacy 91 

Women Urge Church Bells for Confederate Cannon 



The women of the Confederacy felt that their cause was righteous, 
holy, and sacred and involved the highest duty and dearest sacrifice of 
devoted Christians. So when they urged that their precious church bells 
shoud be given to the Confederate Government for making cannon for 
our army, this was the most significant illustration of their devotion 
to the Southland. 

A valuable and beautiful bit of history in which the Confederate wo- 
men of the State had their part, is that which has been collected by Mrs. 
Henry Armand London, of Pittsboro, (an ex-president of the North 
Carolina Division of the U. D. C). As chairman of the U. D. C. com- 
mittee on "Church Bells in the Confederacy/'' Mrs. London gave this 
report at the annual State convention in 1920. 

"In view of the scarcity of tin and other metal suited to the manu- 
facture of field artillery in the Confederacy, and in compliance with the 
call of the Ordinance Review in Richmond for bells eary in 1862, many 
churches patriotically gave their bells to the Confederate Government to 
be cast into cannon. 

"In Hillsboro the Baptist, Presbyterian, and Saint Matthew Episco- 
pal Churches gave their bells, the bell of this Episcopal church was used 
to make the cannon for the battery of the Hillsboro soldiers. After the 
war this was replaced by a memorial bell, given by Mrs. M. A. Curtis, 
in memory of her son John Henry Curtis, and his comrades from this 
town. All the churches in Washington gave their bells. The Roman 
Catholic and Presbyterian churches were burned by Yankees, while the 
Episcopal church was desecrated and used by the Yankees for barracks. 

"The bell of St. John's Episcopal church in Fayetteville was offered 
to the government by the vestry, April 1862, but was not accepted. 
The bell of the Presbyterian church of Fayetteville was offered by the 
session of the church in April 1862, but was not accepted on account 
of the difficulty of transportation. 

"Edenton has the honor of four cannons that were cast from the bells 
in that town and they became the Edenton Bell Battery, in the Confed- 
eracy. St. Pauls Episcopal Church bell, the Methodist Church bell, and 
the Academy bell were all given and cast into four cannons, namely, the 



£1 North Carolina Women 

'S't. Paul," the "Fanny Roulhac," the "Columbia,'" and the "Edenton." 
These four cannons formed the battery that protected the sound from 
Yankee gunboats. 

"The churches of Halifax all gave their bells. Mr. Thomas Pollock 
of that town had given a bell for the servants' chapel and they too of' 
fered their bell, which was sent with the others. 

"The bells from St. Bartholomew's church of Pittsboro, and Calvary 
church of Tarboro, were also given. 

Weldon in '61 had only a little Union Church, with no bell of its 
own, as it used the Railroad shed bell for the call to service but the little 
chapel was used all through the war as a hospital for our soldiers. 

"The Methodist and Episcopal churches of Plymouth also offered their 
bells, also the Methodist church at Greensboro. 

In Wilmington the St. James Episcopal Church was closed for di' 
vine worship by the Yankees the pews and pulpit torn out with pick' 
axes, upon the refusal of its rector to pray for the President of the 
United States, instead of the President of the Confederate States. 

"In Charlotte all five churches gave their bells, which were melted 
into cannon for Brem's Battery, a Charlotte Artillery Organization. Al' 
most the entire battery was lost at the battle of New Bern. Many 
guns, gun-carriages and fittings were made at the Charlotte navy yard. 

"After the war when the Presbyterian church bell of Charlotte was 
replaced by a larger bell, inscribed on this was the history of this first 
bell. 

The five churches of Raleigh tendered their bells. On April 4, 1862, 
the Baptist church offered its large bell which weighed thirteen hundred 
pounds, which made three six-pounders, a half a battery. 

"We copy from the Raleigh Register of April '62, these verses from 
a poem entitled "The Church Bells of the Confederacy." 

Loosen the bolts — lower me down; 

Cannon must be made. 
From hill and vale, and leagured town 

A T^ation's call for aidl 
The joy of a country's heart is gone, 

The light of a people fled; 
To hearts and hearths, the foe presses on 

O'er the forms of the gallant dead. 



of the Confederacy 93 

7^o more should the tongues of the village bell 

Give forth its cheerful strain 
'Till freedom and peace together shall dwell 

In this fair sunny land again. 
So haste to the foundry, let me go, 

"Where my brazen sides may yield 
A weapon of death to the insolent foe 

And then — away to the fieldl 

Transferred again to my lonely perch, 

"When the battle's fought and done — 
A peal I'll ring from the village church 

For countless glories won. 
And anon — a song for the brave who bled. 

Ere victory crowned the day. 
And a dirge for the names of the honored Dead, 

"Who fell in the fearful fray. 



94 Worth Carolina Women 



OTHER CHARACTERS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



The "First Lady" of North Carolina in the War 



The "First Lady" in North Carolina during the greater part of the 
Confederacy, was Mrs. Zebulon Vance, wife of our beloved War Govern' 
or. This frail little woman helped to equip companies and went through 
these terrible days by the side of her courageous husband helping to in- 
spire him with strength to guide wisely his "Ship of State." In unwaver' 
ing faith, high spirit, strength, courage and steadfastness of principal, 
she was an example to all other women of the State who were suffering 
and enduring. 

With her four little sons, she was forced to flee from Raleigh, on the 
approach of Sherman's army, and all her trunks were broken open by 
these "bummers." Again when ill in bed in Statesville, her furniture 
and all belongings were taken by the Yankees, her children being left 
without even a bed, and again when ill, her husband was taken from her 
very arms to be imprisoned in Washington City. On all these terrible 
occasions this intrepid little woman showed an indominitable spirit, for 
which she was honored throughout North Carolina. 



Though most modest and retiring in her nature, yet Mrs. Anna Morri- 
son Jackson, of Charlotte, stands out amongst our fearless women, not 
only for herself but as the wife of our immortal Stonewall Jackson. She 
gave to the Confederacy her distinguished husband, whom she followed 
in many a battle, almost being in the fighting herself. On one occasion, 
when en route to the winter camp to join Gen. Jackson, she had packed 
full of provision for the soldiers, a wornout hair trunk. Some of our sol' 
diers on the train were ridiculing the ancient article, whereupon the 
black mammy, who accompanied her, as nurse to little Julia, exclaimed. 



of the Confederacy 95 

"Yo' better not be makin fun o' that ere trunk, 'cause hit belongs to 
Mrs. "Stonewall Jackson." The Confederates at once apologized, with 
bows to the trunk. 

Mrs. Jackson showed the spirit of her noble husband by helping to 
keep green the memory of the Confederacy in her memorial work and 
later in the U. D. C, being the Honorary President of this Division. 

Excutive ability was displayed by so many of our women in those 
critical days. This characteristic was shown to a marked degree by 
Mrs. Jonathan Worth, of Asheboro, who was one of the "Inventive 
Women of the War." Her husband had equipped an entire company 
from his county, at his own expense, and Mrs. Worth herself oversaw 
all the garments made for these men. 

Throughout the war she paid numbers of needy women in that vicinity 
to sew and knit for this company, this not only providing them with a 
livelihood, but giving them happiness of working for their own husbands 
and fathers. Whenever soldiers would pass through the town, Mrs. 
Worth would have her servants go out and gather up the discarded socks 
left by the soldiers. After having them washed in steaming tubs, she 
would employ soldiers 1 wives to knit new feet on these clean socks, ship' 
ping them to the soldiers at the front. In '62 when Mr. Worth became 
State Treasurer, under Governor Vance, Mrs. Worth shared the responsi- 
bility of caring for the State's books, and later, when Governor of North 
Carolina, she courageously went through the terrors of reconstruction 
days by his side. By her dignified fact and good sense, she saved the 
day in many instances when the Yankee hordes were terrorizing Raleigh. 

The memory of Mrs. Margaret Ann Cromwell, a sainted woman of 
the Sixties, hangs like a benediction to those who remember her wonder' 
ful personality and activities during the war. Margaret Ann Cromwell 
showed her heroic ancestry when she sent her young husband, Elisha v 
Cromwell, to fight for the Confederacy, with a cheerful smile, then 
with an aching heart she went to work to do her part for the South and 
her soldiers. She was a helpmeet in truth, assisting Colonel Cromwell 
in organizing his regiment. 

Besides managing her large plantation, Margaret Cromwell was the 
Mother of the company of boys that her husband carried to the war, 
spinning and weaving clothes, knitting and in every way administering 
to their comfort. 



96 7^[orth Carolina "Women 

Mrs. Cromwell was known throughout her native county, and adjoin' 
ing counties, as a woman of strong irreproachable character, and although 
raised in affuence, when the dark days of the war came, she ministered 
to those that were less fortunate than herself and was a friend indeed 
to the needy families of her soldiers. Mrs. Cromwell's self-forgetfulness 
gave inspiration to others, and to all she came in contact with she was 
a constant blessing. Her grand-daughter, Mrs. Jackson Daniel Thrash 
Morrison, was one of the beloved ex-presidents of the North Carolina 
Division U. D. C. 

Like Mrs. Cromwell in incessant work for the Confederacy, was Mrs. 
Tempie Ann (Battle) Marriott, of the same vicinity. Her husband, Dr. 
Marriott, not being physically able to serve in the army, did more than 
his share as physician and chief adviser to the people of Nash and Edge- 
combe counties. Mrs. Marriott did everything possible to aid the Cause 
by raising great quantities of provisions which were given to feed her 
county's soldiers. She kept many of them clothed by her own work of 
spinning, weaving and sewing. One of her four soldier brothers died 
of fever, but though heartbroken, this woman of the Sixties worked all 
the harder for her beloved South. 

Her spirit of endeavor has been handed down to her granddaughter 
and namesake, Tempie Whitehead Holt, another past president of the 
N. C. Division of the U. D. C. 

Mrs. Robert Ransom, the wife of one of North Caroina's distinguished 
generals, was a wealthy woman who came South with her husband from 
Washington City. She gave of her own means to help Gen. Ransom 
equip the 1st N. C. Calvary which he raised and trained at Ridgeway. 

All during the war Mrs. Ransom sent boxes and did work for the 
sick soldiers. When married she had dozens of suits of linen underwear 
and many linen shirts, etc. Many of these she scrapped to make lint 
for the hospitals. She lived with a most hospitable family five miles 
from Petersburg, and a large four room office was always filled with sick 
soldiers whom she and the mistress of the home nursed. She would go 
to the other hospitals and write letters home for the men, and alas, too 
often writing to tell of their death. In the possession of her daughter, 
Mrs. F. M. Williams, is a letter from President Davis, thanking her for 
a box of provisions sent him, and saying they were almost on the verge 
of starvation when it came. She shipped boxes of honey from Major 



of the Confederacy 97 

John Browning's farm, where she refugeed in '64. At the cloee of the 
war, in October '66, she opened a large school in Wilmington, and while 
she had charge of this she wrote President Davis, who had then lost every 
thing, asking him to send her his oldest daughter, Maggie, and allow her 
to educate her. The letter making the offer has lately been published 
in the Collection of Letters and Papers of President Davis, arranged by 
Dr. Dembar Rowland, of Mississippi. 

To her death Mrs. Ransom loved the South and her agony at her hus- 
band's absence in the war was increased by the knowledge that her only 
brother and her only sister's husband were on the other side, and she 
dreaded them ever meeting. 

Here is a recollection of Mrs. Fannie Ransom Williams, of her child- 
hood while refugeeing : 

"We had stopped somewhere for the night, and had no bread. 
Mother tried to buy some meal, but the negroes, and they were the only 
people in the number, would not sell us any, so our old mammy went out 
and got a little, I don't know how. Having nothing to mix with it, I 
remember going with "Mammy" to pick up persimmons, which they 
baked in the corn meal we ate." 

Truly the name of Mrs. Robert Ransom should be remembered as one 
of our "Women of the Sixties," as she gave her heart and means to the 
Southern Cause, though born beyond the "Mason and Dixon Line." 
Her splendid spirit is inherited by her daughter, one of our honored Ex- 
Division Presidents, Mrs. Fannie Ransom Williams. 

Mrs. William Parsley, Founder of the N. C. Division U. D. C. 

TO MOTHERS OF THE U. D. C. 

(By Mrs. Thomas M. Brockman) 

With gallant stars a-glimmer 

On a field of royal blue 

As aguide and an inspiration, 

Southern women, loyal and true, 

Formed a circle wide as the heavens 

~bAade a vow as firm as the stars, 

To build a shrine forever 

Round their hallowed Stars and Bars. 



98 Worth Carolina Women 

Then here's to the loyal women, 
Of the State we love the best, 
Who have \e\?t alive through trying years 
A page that will stand the test 
Of all history's searchlights, 
Of all that the years set free — • 
The women who sealed the heart of the South 
In the shrine of the U. D. C. 
One of the most beloved and honored of the North Carolina women 
of the sixties was Mrs. Wm. M. Parsley, (Eliza Hall Nutt) of Wilming' 
ton, "Mother" and organiser of the N. C. Division U. D. C. Mrs. Pars' 
ley was made a widow of the Confederacy on April 6th, 1865, her gallant 
young Colonel husband being killed three days before the surrender. 
State's rights, patriotism and duty were her watchwords, and she con' 
tinued after his death to live up to these principles. She realised it was 
her duty to help the wornout and disabled soldiers, to encourage those 
who came from the war disheartened, to give them comfort and help them 
begin life anew. Knowing there were many worse off than hereslf she 
asked her father to help them, and accepted a position in a school. 
There she began the education of her two little girls. 

In December, 1894, she organised the Cape Fear Chapter of the 
Daughters of the Confederacy, and in April, 1895, she organized the 
N. C. Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, being 
unanimously elected its first president. Chapters and individuals went 
to her for guidance and she urged all to teach the coming generation 
correct history. That the southern soldiers were heroes and not traitors. 
She was literally a "Mother" of the Confederacy, for she had loved, and 
suffered and lost. Her life was a benediction to many a soldier, for she 
fully understood the incomparable privations of a southern soldier's life. 
She gave her gallant husband to the cause and her very last years in work 
for her beloved Confederate Veterans. 

"A daughter of the Confederacy, 
One thought upholds her courage 
In storm and stress and gloom — 
She will not fail or trifle, 
Will bravely play her part; 
Because she \nows a hero's blood 
Is beating in her heart." 



of the Confederacy 99 

The following incident of a woman of the Sixties in Lexington is 
narrated by Miss. Camille Holt Hunt, whose mother, Francis Holt, (Mrs. 
C. A. Hunt) whiled away many hours for her children with tales of her 
Childhood in the Confederacy. 

"My Grandmother, Louisa Hogan, wife of Dr. William R. Holt, and 
her daughters, Claudia, Frances (my mother) and Amelia, lived at the 
"Homestead" in Lexington, during the days of the sixties. Four sons 
having gone to the front, all of whom died during the period of the war. 

"My Grandfather, altho a practicing physician, owned a large plan' 
tation at Linwood, seven miles from Lexington, where he had spent much 
of his time in orded to save what he could from raiders of all sorts, as 
he owned much cotton, stock, and fine mules. Therefore my grand- 
mother and her three daughters were without male protection save for 
the faithful slaves. 

"The days of 1861-65, when this section lived in constaint fear of the 
coming of the Yankees and the depredations they might commit, were 
anxious ones for all southern women, especially in 1865, when things 
were more lawless than ever. 

"Finally the day arrived when General Kilpatrick and his men did 
arrive in Lexington. The women in town previous to this, made a raid 
on all places where whiskey was kept and poured it out, and all valuables 
were hidden. As was the custom of these men on their march, they 
demanded the best houses for their use, service and whatever they cared 
to take. My grandmother, realising how unprotected she and her 
daughters would be, used much wisdom and good judgment in the man- 
ner with which she managed the situation. 

"She dispatched her faithful butler, "Jerry," with a note to General 
Kilpatrick when he reached the suburbs of town, extending to him and 
his staff an invitation to be the guests of Mrs. W. R. Holt, at her resi- 
dence the "Homestead," wihle in town. This surprised the General but 
dence, the "Homestead," while in town. This surprised the General, but 
came to the front door where my grandmother met him with a courtesy. 

"The General, recognizing that he was in the presence of a lady to 
the manner born, accepted the hospitality offered with deference and 
respect and assured her that she and her family would be treated with 
consideration. Other homes were much abused and the owners suffered 
indignities. 



100 7\[orth Carolina Women 

"The Homestead, at this time was the handsomest place in town, 
standing 100 feet from the street amidst stately elm trees, occupying 
several acres. This was made the General's headquartrs. In relating 
this my grandmother said that her blood boiled within her when she 
, talked with the General, and the girls were weeping with anger and re- 
bellion upstairs, but she knew they were helpless, and for the safety of 
her young daughters, pride had to be put aside. 

"A United States flag was placed at the gate, and a guard carrying 
a gun, paced back and forth in front of the house day and night. Traces 
of the path he made over the greensward remained there for many 
months. 

"My grandmother and the girls occupied two bedrooms, on the door< 
facings of which are still the iron receptacles for holding the bars across 
the doors. The girls ate their meals in their room, for they' were very 
rebellious, and would not speak to them, (the Yankees) especially the 
youngest, sixteen years of age. But my grandmother took her place at 
the head of the table, thus demanding order and respect at her board. 

"As was usual, the kitchen, a large structure, was situated 50 feet 
from the "big" house, and many out buildings were scattered over the 
place. Maria and Betsy hated to cook for the Yankees at first, but liberal 
tips overcame this to some extent. One day the General asked if his 
French Chef, who was with him, could go to the kitchen and prepare 
'some of the food, this was permitted and he served many tempting 
dishes, none of which the girls would touch. They had the best of 
everything, of course sugar and coffee were scarce in those days but they 
had plenty of both, loaf sugar in 25-lb. blocks. My grandmother saved 
one of these until her oldest daughter was married and her wedding 
cakes were made of it. 

"One of the staff had a large trunk in his room filled with beautiful 
ladies wearing apparel and silver which belonged to a lady in South Caro' 
lina, which he had confiscated. These he showed to the maids Thenie 
and Mandy, who tolds the girls. 

"In their private conversation, many tales were told of what they 
done in other places on their march, which convinced my grandmother 
that the only thing to do was to treat them as tho she believed them to be 
gentlemen, and thus demand their respect. 



of the Confederacy 101 

"They had many fine horses, which delighted Kas, the coachman, 
and he wanted his mistress to accept a pair of these for the carriage, but 
,she would not, but when they left the General presented Aunt Amelia 
.with a beautiful black pony which she finally accepted and called "Kih 
patrick." They had fine Game chickens, and would go to the far end 
of the place and indulge in cock fighting, which would please the 
darkies. 

"When the General took his departure he was most profuse in his 
thanks, and left some gold for my grandmother, which was about all they 
had except land to weather thro the reconstruction period." 



102 Worth Carolina Women 

YOUNG WOMEN TAKE MEN'S PLACES 

"Dixie land of the long ago, from your flower hordeded pathway we 
gather these blossoms of history to weave a chaplet of glory to crown 
the girl heroes of the South in the Sixties." 

After awhile when every male, both old men and young boys, in 
the defense of their homes, the young women were taken in at the mili' 
tary posts, to do the work that a young man might do, (as a stenographer 
of the present day). Early in 1864 the positions as clerk or copyists 
were offered to four young gentle women, Misses Campbell, Stedman, 
Taylor and Ellison, at the Fayetteville arsenal. The officials at the 
arsenal treated the young women clerks as honored guests, which the 
latter greatly appreciated. They remained there 'till Sherman's army, 
in March "65, destroyed every building on the arsenal grounds. As there 
was no money, the pay given these young ladies was black alpaca, which 
was kept in the arsenal to use in some way in making cartridges. The 
alpaca, combined with scraps of colored silk, made most elaborate dresses 
for these girls. 

After the burning of her home by the Yankees in Washington, N. 
C, Miss E. M. B. Koyt offered her services as clerk in the Commissary 
Department at Granville, under Major De Meille, her brother-in-law. 
Her pay for faithful and efficient service was in tobacco, which was sold 
for twelve dollars in greenbacks. 

Miss Anna Johnson, of Sampson county, enlisted as clerk at Brigade 
Headquarters in February '63, and served most efficiently. 

Another young woman whom North Carolina claims, who took a 
man's place in the service of the Confederate Government was Miss Isa' 
bell Gill. Miss Gill served in the Confederate Treasury Department and 
her signature is on many of the Confederate bills which are now treasured 
relics. Her quick intelligence and fitness made her a valuable worker 
and her service was highly commended by the Confederate authorities. 

The Children's Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy at New- 
ton, North Carolina, is named in honor of this young woman, who at the 
close of the war, married a Confederate soldier of that town, Sidney 
Wilfong, one of four brothers in the Confederacy. 



of the Confederacy 103 



RECOLLECTIONS OF YOUNG GIRLS 

"I wish I was in Dixie, away, away. 
In Dixie's land I'll ta\e my stand, 
To live and die in Dixie." 



Some of the younger women kept diaries during the sixties and that 
kept by Miss Mary Ashe is a noteworthy record of the life of a young girl 
during these terrible four years. This girl of 19 (when the war began) 
was one whom those who knew her put almost on a pedestal, and her 
diary shows her personal emotions with her prayers. It deserves pre' 
servation as indicating life among North Carolinians at this period, and 
is illustrative that North Carolina women presented an example never 
surpassed. Miss Ashe tells of her first war days spent in the country, 
at Rocky Point, near Wilmington, with her invalid mother and young 
sister, (herself a delicate girl). Her father, the Hon. William S. Ashe, 
in the Confederate service at R:chmond,having charge of the important 
duties of army transportation from the Mississippi river to Virginia — 
one brother, Maj. John Grange, at first with General Bragg at Mobile 
and then in Lee's army, and the other, (Captain Samuel Ashe) our State's 
distinguished historian, also in active service of the Confederacy. The 
first sorrow mentioned in this interesting diary was the tragic death of 
her father, from a railroad accident, Sept. '62. At this time the diary 
records the imprisonment in Washington City of the brother Samuel. 
After a hard winter the next grief recorded is the death of the invalid 
mother. Miss Ashe tells how the good God provided for her and her 
little sisters, and at length when her brother Samuel was ordered from the 
front (unsought by him) to the position of Assistant to the Command' 
ing Officer at the Fayetteville arsenal. Here the brother made a home 
for his young sisters, who busied themselves in activities for their sol' 
dies boys, with the other ladies of the town. 

Though the handwriting is dim with years yet this little diary of 
Mary Porter Ashe's contain a story duplicated among many of our wo- 



104 Worth Carolina 'Women 

men from '61 to ""65, and it is a memorial to this lovely young girl, whose 
life was cut off toward the close of the war. 

"Old times there are not forgotten, 
Loo\ away, loo\ away, Dixie Land." 

The following is written by Miss Kate McKimmon, for many years 
the honored and beloved "mother" of the girls at St. Mary's School, 
Raleigh, and a devoted lover of the Confederacy. 

"The first five years of the "60's" found me as I still am, an uncon' 
structed rebel! As a school girl at St. Mary's, I enjoyed marching with 
our "crowd," when with paper caps, Confederate flag and a drum we 
paraded around the grove. In '61 on Saturday in the early spring the 
"crowd" was proud to go to the Capitol to help the ladies who were 
making "fatigue" suits for Manly's Battery. Some of us would run 
down to the "Tuckers" or "McKimmon's" for thread, needles and ma' 
terial, gray flannel for the suits. Others would carry messages and ma' 
terials from room to room. Well do I remember the day the Battery, 
of which my brother was a member, came to salute Gov. Ellis, before 
leaving Raleigh to join Lee's army in Virginia. Four years of honorable, 
courageous service that battery gave the Confederacy, standing by our 
Chieftain's side until he gave the command to surrender. 

"St. Mary's School has a proud war record! Her doors were never 
closed to the request for help from those who, as "The War" waged 
its relentless course were deprived of their homes; among those who asked 
for a home during the sad days was the family of Jefferson Davis, the 
beloved President of the Confederacy. The "East Rock," as known to 
St. Mary's girls, furnished a refuge to Mrs. Davis and four children, dur' 
ing the summer of '63. The beloved founder, Dr. Albert Smedes, edu' 
cated many girls during these years whose fathers, being short of cash, 
brought their tuition in the form of provisions. 

"When in ^65, Johnson's army passed through Raleigh, footsore, rag- 
ged, hungry, tradition has it that St. Mary's girls carried their dinner 
out to the gate and gave it to them. Well do I remember the day, 
April 12, '65. Throughout Raleigh, all along their march, food and 
water were carried to them. The appearance of that brave body of men, 
emaciated from lack of food and clothing, did not tend to produce any 



of the Confederacy 105 

enjoyment in seeing the Yankee army, fat, sleek, with banners flying, 
drums beating, pass through our city, three days being required to accom' 
plish it. "Tecumseh Billie," alias Gen. Sherman, pitched his tent in 
what was then the "'Governor's Palace." My home was diagonally 
across the street, hence I had the pleasure of seeing many more "blue' 
coats" than I desired. At night, I was often awakened by strains of 
beautiful music, for a moment I would enjoy the music of silver instru' 
ments, but when I would realise the instruments were "Yankee, 1 '' I would 
"cover up" and try not to hear. 

"Raleigh was surrendered to Gen. Sherman on his entrance to the 
city, hence I am glad to say there was no robbing or sacking . As to 
the "reconstruction" period, I leave its description to abler pens than 
mine. North Carolina was, I am glad to say, more fortunate than 
some of her sister States, S. C. and Louisiana for example, but insults 
and indignities, to a greater or less extent, were heaped upon all who 
gloried in our beloved Southland." 

Written by a devoted woman of the South, who as a young girl, was 
eye'witness to what she has written. 

Though we are recording the part that the women and young girls 
took in the Confederacy, yet in almost every town of the State the boys 
were too young to be accepted for service, these youngsters gave real 
assistance to the women. We have mentioned the part taken by two of 
these "boys," Benehan Cameron and Francis Winston, and now we will 
give a few of the recollections of another "little boy of the sixties." He 
is now North Carolina's valued Historian (who has done so much to 
preserve our Confederate history) Col. F. A. Olds, collector of the 
State's Hall of History, Raleigh. 

"The little boy of 1861-65, who writes these reminiscences now, used 
to go to Sunday School during the war between the States. There were 
no "lessons" as they have now, and the churches were small. It was a 
sad time but few people were mourning; except in the large places. There 
were colporteurs, who took "tracts" and Bibles to the soldiers in the 
camps. The writer now has a lot of the tracts, printed by the Confed' 
erate Bible Society. 

"Sometimes soldiers came into the little schools and made talks to the 
youngsters. The writer was studying that then wonderful text book 



106 Tvjorth Carolina Women 

"The Scholar's Companion," and McGruffy's Readers. Recitations 
were extremely popular then, and the girls were always, or nearly so, 
cleverer than the boys. 

"We youngsters had a great admiration for the "patrollers," as the 
negroes always called the "patrols 11 of citizens who kept order. There 
was a darky song, "Run, nigger, run, de patroller'l ketch you; run, nig' 
ger, run, it's almost day." 

"New Year's Day was also a great occasion in those days. "People 
of quality" kept open houses. There were streams of callers, all gen' 
tlemen, young and old, and the ladies were "At Home" to them. There 
'was "eggnog" in the hall and a collation in the dining room. People 
had good appetites in those days and the hospitality was most generous 
and real. There was no "paint and powder," no "makeup," but every 
thing was hearty and natural. It is a joy to have lived in those days, 
when there was no dope, cigarettes, "gas," or wild hurry to, crowd "a 
lifetime in a week." 

"The main street of Salisbury has quite a slope and one wet night 
as the mother of the writer was bringing him along on this street a cour' 
ier dashed up on a big horse. He was a little fellow, just a boy, and 
as he pulled up his horse the latter stumbled and threw him. The lad fell 
on his head and his brains were exposed as he lay in a few yards of us. 

"The "refugees," who had lived in the eastern counties of the State, 
and who fled when the Federal troops occupied the sone northward from 
New Bern, were also objects of interest. The up'country was strange 
to not a few of them, as very few people traveled in those days. They 
brought their slaves with them, unless the latter had "run away." In 
those days Raleigh and Hillsboro were considered by the coastahplain 
folks to be "up'country." 

"Thrift and infinitely careful saving were seen on all sides. To waste 
was a sin in that trying time of war, and also before the war and after 
it. With 1,000,000 soldiers to clothe and feed, with no end of other 
pressing necessities to be met, every white and every black worked, 
worked, and worked. North Carolina had a fifth of all the 600,000 
Confederate soldiers (from 13 States) and hers were the best looked after. 
Besides this North Carolina was to an immense extent a furnisher of 
supplies to the rest of the Confederate armies. The state hummed like 
a beehive." 



of the Confederacy 10? 



FIRST CONFEDERATE FLAGS MADE BY 
NORTH CAROLINA WOMEN 



OUR DIVISION SONG 

"There's a banner we uphold, 

A banner without stain; 

And in each precious fold, 

We can see the past again, 

Oh, the gallant hosts It lead, 

Have become our glory dead, 

But the stars and bars will live forever." 

(Anna Jones ~Wooten) 

When the North Carolina regiments marched off to war in the Con' 
federate army, each regiment was required to have the regulation Con' 
federate and North Carolina Flags, both, of which were furnished by 
the State. In many communities the women with loving hands made 
with artistic embroidery, special flags for their regiments, and quite a 
little ceremony of presentation took place as the boys in grey marched 
off so gallantly. 

A very few descriptions of these "presentation flags 11 have been se- 
cured, though many more communities than are recorded gave flags to 
their special regiments. 

The names of Mrs. Rebecca Winborne and Major Orren Randolph 
Smith, (Louisburg, North Carolina) are inseparably linked with the 
Southern Confederacy, from the fact that Captain Smith designed and 
Mrs. Winborne made the first Confederate flag, the "Stars and Bars. 11 
After completing the design for the flag, after the Confederate Congress 
had advertised for models, Captain Smith went to his friend, (then Miss 
Rebecca Murphy, later Mrs. Winborne,) and she put togeteher and 
stitched the pieces for the flag. This was sent to Montgomery and ac- 
cepted by the Confederate Congress as the official flag of the Confed- 
eracy in 1861. Mrs. Winborne also made a larger flag, nine by twelve 



108 "Horth Carolina Womert 

feet, which was sent aloft on March 18th, 1861, on the Court House 
square at Louisburg, N. C, two months before North Carolina seceded. 

The description of the flag as told by Mr. Smith is as follows : 

"The idea of my flag I took from the Trinity — Three-in-One. The 
three bars were the Church, State and Press. Red represented State, 
Legislative, Judiciary and Executive; White for Church, Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost; Red for Press, Freedom of Speech, Fredom of Con- 
science, Liberty of Press, all bound together by a field of blue, the heavens 
over all, bearing a star for each State in the Confederacy. The seven 
white stars, all the same size, were placed in a circle, showing that each 
State had equal rights and privileges, irrespective of size or population. 
The circle having neither head nor foot, signified "You defend me, and 
I'll protect you. 11 

All claims and proof of these claims have been laid before a committee 
of the four Confederate organisations and all four have decided that 
to Orren Randolph Smith of North Carolina belongs the honor of hav 
ing designed the Stars and Bars, first Confederate flag. A beautiful 
marble fountain has been erected by the North Carolina Division U. 
D. C. in Louisburg, in memory of the designer of this flag, thus showing 
the appreciation the women of his State have for Orren Randolph Smith. 

The North Carolina Division of the U. D. C. has fittingly placed a 
monument at the grave of Mrs. Winborne in Wilson. The coming into 
existence of the Bonnie Blue Flag placed on a high place in the history 
of the Lost Cause the name of this lovely Southern woman, who proud- 
ly and lovingly constructed the flag under which Lee and Jackson led 
our splendid soldiers to battle. 

The ladies of Louisburg can probably enjoy the honor of having made 
the first public presentation of the "Stars and Bars" to a military com' 
pany. It was presented to the Franklin Rifles, in April, 1861, before 
North Carolina seceded, and Mr. J. E. Malone, of Laurinburg, has the 
paper containing the speech made by Miss Ella Nobles, and the one of 
acceptance by Captain W. F. Green, also one by the Ensign, W. K. 
Barham. The old flag is in the Hall of History in Raleigh. 

General W. A. Smith, Commander of the N. C. Division U. C. V., 
tells us that in Ansonville, on February 2nd, 1861, a Secession flag was 
flung to the breeze, in large letters at the top was the word "Secession," 



of the Confederacy 109 

while underneath was this motto: "Resistance to oppression is obedience 
to God. 1 '' The flag was six by nine feet and attached to a long pole. 
Several young men of the village had made this flag of calico. The 
next day they carried it to the residence of Mrs. Garrett, "an enthusiast 
in the cause of secession,'" who, assisted by the young ladies made a 
large flag of bunting, a duplicate of the calico flag. This flag was un- 
furled on the afternoon of February 3rd, '61, Misses Kate Smith and 
Winnie Watson made four rosettes and pinned them on the lapels of 
the young men who made the first flag, which, said one of them, "made 
us very proud and we walked the streets as vain as peacocks." Under 
cover of darkness, this first secession flag of bunting was cut down and 
destroyed, but these dauntless women made another larger and of finer 
material. No further attempts were made against it when hung. When 
the "Anson Grands," the first company in the State to offer its services 
to Governor Ellis, left for the front this secession flag was given to John 
Waddell to be presented to Governor Ellis. 

The women of Wadesboro made a silk flag for the Anson Guards as 
they left for war. It was of white with letters of blue, the silk being 
bought at Mr. Stacy's store, the letters being cut by Mrs. Lem Beeman. 
This flag (now in the Hall of History) was presented to the Anson 
Guards in April '61, by Mrs. Hampton B. Hammond in behalf of the 
ladies and was received by Captain Risden Tyler Bennett (later a col- 
onel at twenty-one) the father of Mrs. Eugene Little, Ex-President of 
this Division. 



One of the oldest Confederate flags in our Hall of History was made 
and embroidered by Miss Christine Fisher, of Salisbury, made from a 
blue China crepe ladies 1 shawl, with the seal of North Carolina in high 
relief in the center. It was presented to her brother's (Colonel Fisher's) 
regiment, and embroidered on it was "Sixth Infantry State Troops" with 
the regimental motto (chosen by Colonel Fisher) "Do or Die." On the 
reverse side was "May 20th, 1775," date of the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion. 

The young ladies of Salisbury also made a silk flag for the Rowan 
Artillery, and it was presented to the departing soldiers by Miss Martha 
Marorie. 



110 TSforth Carolina Women 

The first flag made in Washington was by Mrs. F. C. Roberts and 
Miss Manly — a silk flag the length of the room, for Fort Macon, a 
work of art, embroidered on it being a rattlesnake around a pine tree, 
the old State flag. 



A beautiful flag was made for the Buncombe Riflemen by the follow- 
ing young ladies of Asheville: Misses Woodfin, Patton, Gaines, and 
Smith. Miss Anna Woodfin being chosen to present it. The ma- 
terial of the flag was contributed from the silk dresses of these young 
ladies. The "Riflemen'" being the color company of the regiment in the 
battle of Bethel, this flag was the first one baptised in blood during the 
war! Miss Woodfin afterwards wrought 1 on its white bar with blue 
silk, the word "Bethel." It now drapes the portrait of Henry Wyatt 
in the State Hall of History. 

The women of Washington gave a beautiful silk flag to the "Wash- 
ington Grays'" as they took their departure for the war. The white 
stripe in the flag was part of the satin wedding gown of Mrs. Thomas 
Myers, a cherished treasure, but given for the Confederate Cause. The 
account reads "In the presence of a large gathering of the townspeople 
Miss Clara Hoyt presented the flag with a very appropriate address, 
and displayed a warmth of manner, a graceful self-possession, and a pa- 
triotism of feeling that none but a Southern lady knows how to exhibit. 
The tenor of her address was such as to infuse an amount of ardor and 
2,eal into the company. Added to this influence was the appearance of 
several young ladies dressed in white, while such insignia as was em- 
blematic of each seceding State. 

Their countenances beamed with an expression calculated to thrill 
the hearts of all who were about to leave at their country's call." In 
the fall of 1860, a Confederate flag made by Mrs. Watters and other 
ladies, was flung from the window on the Court House, after a speech 
of acceptance. 



Mrs. A.nna McNair led the women of Tarboro in making their first 
flag, all the stars being outlined with white star braid. This was pre- 
sented to the "Edgecombe Guards," their first volunteers, by Miss Cor- 
nelia Crenshaw, in a charming little spech. 



of the Confederacy 111 

Under the direction of Mrs. Patrick Henry Winston, the women 
of Windsor, Bertie county, (among them being Misses Outlaw and 
Webb) made a flag for Company C, 11th N. C. Regiment, of which 
Lieut. Col. Francis W. Byrd was an officer. The flag was carried in 
many desperate battles and encounters, badly torn by shot and shell, and 
tattered by wind and rain. Rough soldier hands patched it as far as 
they could and followed this precious emblem made by their sisters at 
home. When Lee surrendered, the flag was in possession of Company 
C, Colonel Byrd having been killed at Rhemn's station. Captain Edward 
Outlaw and others on the morning of the surrender took the flag and 
secreted it under his coat, and went in a small skirt of woods and after 
tearing out a square of it, they burned it, rather than it should fall in 
the hands of the enemy. This precious relfc Captain Outlaw kept until 
his death. He was buried in 1922, in the beautiful Episcopal Church 
yard at Windsor, dressed in his Confederate uniform and pinned above 
his heart was the small rag torn from the old tattered flag. 

When Shelby's first company under the leadership of Captain A. W. 
Burton departed for the war they were presented with a handsome Con' 
federate flag made by Miss Julia Durham, (later Mrs. Green), and 
several Shelby ladies. 

The presentation speech was made by Miss Durham, who at the time 
was only 15 years of age, and reveals the faith and courage with which 
the daughters of the South sent away their men to fight for the beloved 
cause. The speech which has been preserved through the years is as 
follows : 

"We in the name of the ladies of Shelby present you this flag. It 
is to assure you of the deep interest we feel in this coming crisis. Re' 
gardless of northern scoffing and Southern terroism you have at last 
faced your destiny and may the god of battle assist you to maintain 
the honor of the Old North State and defend those rights maintained by 
our forefathers on the 20th of May, 1775. We have adopted the flag 
of the Confederate States, whose interests are inseparable from our own, 
and for the purpose of expressing our heartfelt sympathy for, and CO' 
operate with our noble brothers of the Sunny South. These hands shall 
unfurl this banner to the breezes and it shall never be lowered at the 
command of the hired minions of Lincoln. Our cause is just and God 



112 7S[orth Carolina Women 

will be with us. May you who have sacrificed your greatest interests 
to come forward and seek eagerly to defend your country at every ha2,' 
ard, return back to your fond homes and kindred uninjured. We bid 
you God speed." 

The first flag of Forsyth county was made for Company I, Captain 
A. H. Belo. It was made by Misses Bettie and Laura Lemly, Nellie 
Belo, Carrie and Mary Fries. It was made of red, white, and blue silk, 
and was embroidered in all large letters, with yellow silk, on the white 
side, with the words "'Liberty or Death." After the war, Colonel 
Belo settled in Texas, which accounts for the fact that after his death 
his widow presented the flag to the Texas Room in the Confederate 
Museum at Richmond, Va. The second flag was. made by the same 
young ladies. They could not get more silk like the first, so used white 
silk for the whole flag, embroidering it in blue silk with the verse, 

"Our country first our glory and our pride, 
Land of our hopes, land where our fathers died, 
'When in the right we'll \eep thy honor bright, 
When in the right we'll die to set thee right." 
This flag was made for the Co. commanded by Capt. Rufus Wharton. 
It was carried into several battles; was concealed on the person of its 
Captain at the fall of Plymouth, and was brought home when he was 
exchanged. It was presented to the Wachovia Historical Society of 
Winston-Salem, several years ago, by Mrs. Blythe, of Philadelphia. 

Both of these flags were presented to the Companies of the Forsyth 
Rifles by Miss Bettie Lemly (later Mrs. Blacknall Brooks, of Salem,) 
being carried by Misses Laura Lemly (who never married) and Mary 
Fries (who married Rufus Lenoir Patterson). The ceremony took place 
at the corner of Main and Bank Streets, the young ladies standing on 
the steps leading to the entrance of what is now known as the Belo 
Home, then a private residence belonging to Captain Belo's father. Miss 
■Sarah E. Shaffuer remembers passing just at the time for the presentation 
of the first flag, and being touched and thrilled by the sight of Miss 
Lemly making the presentation speech to Captain Belo and his company. 



The last company from Duplin county was Company E, 20th N. C. 
commanded by Captain Denem, afterward sent to Virginia with Lewis 



of the Confederacy 113 

T. Hicks as Captain. As soon as this company was formed and ready 
to leave Miss Rachale Mclver presented it with a handsome flag, which 
she made herself. This flag was taken by him to Virginia and carried 
through the war, in many battles. It was highly appreciated by this 
company. 



A flag was made by the young ladies of the Wayne County Female 
Academy for the Goldsboro Rifles and presented in April '61 to the 
company's commander by Captain M. D. Craten at Fort Macon. This 
flag was the only one laid upon the casket of Jefferson Davis at New 
Orleans. It is now on exhibition in our State Hall of History in Raleigh 
presented by the survivors of the Goldsboro Rifles. 

The flag that was used at the funeral of Governor Ellis in June 1861, 
had its motto, "Deeds, Not Words 11 embroidered on it; this is also one 
. of the precious relics in the Hall of History. 



Another flag in this collection is that made by Mrs. W. T. Southerland 
and presented to her husband's company the "Milton Blues, 11 of Cash' 
well county, in May '61. It is made of heavy silk embroidered with 
eleven stars and the motto, "On to Victory." 



A handsome flag was made by the women of Fayetteville for the 
Bethel Regiment, composed of the boys of the historic Fayetteville In' 
dependent Light Infantry and the LaFayette Company, who were in 
the first N. C. regiment. This was presented to them September 9th, 
'61, and was embroidered with the word "Bethel. 11 



A beautiful silk flag was presented to the 1st N. C. Cavalry, com- 
mander by (afterwards General) Robert Ransom, from his devoted wife. 
With her own hand she embroidered a flag and presented it to the 
regiment just before it left for Richmond to be reviewed by President 
Davis. She requested that the flag never be surrendered, and after 
the fall at Appomattox, one of the men wrote, they never surrendered 
it, but sunk it in the river. A newspaper clipping of this presentation 
is filed with General Ransom's things in the Hall of History. 



114 Worth Carolina Women 

A handsome silk flag was made by Mrs. Elisabeth Slade Wiggins for 
the company which was organised by her husband Mason L. Wiggins, 
in Halifax county several days before North Carolina seceded. This 
mother of seven sons in the Confederacy (herself of patriotic revolu' 
tionary stock) was ardent in her love for the Confederacy, and her 
home "Woodlawn," was the mecca for the sick soldiers who came through 
Halifax. Her diary, kept all during the war, is filled with many in' 
teresting facts and bits of history of that period that will bear preserv 
ing. 

In her sketch of Company I, 6th N. C. Regiment, Mrs. A. J. Ellis, 
the beloved historian of the Raleigh "Daughters," tells of the presenta- 
tion of a beautiful flag to these boys of the Morrisville and Cedar Fork 
communities of Wake County. She says, "A beautiful banner of blue 
silk, trimmed with white silk fringe, the N. C. coat Of arms painted in 
one corner, and the inscription. "To the Morrisville Grays by the Ladies 
of Cedar Fork," in the center,had been made by Misses Morris, Page 
and Lyon. This was presented to the company by Miss Jennie Lyon in 
an appropriate address, being accepted by Lt. Page. After patriotic 
songs and resounding cheers by the soldiers, a Bible was given each man 
by the ladies. 

The flag was captured during the war by Major Wiggins, of Ohio, 
and a great celebration took place at Cedar Fork when it was received 
by the lady who first presented it, now Mrs. Lowe. This flag is now in 
the Hall of History in Raleigh. 

"The Stars and Bars are furled, but loved the same, 
And through the bloody stains we love the name 
Of Stars and Stripes, for which we fight today, 
The old flag is not lost, but laid away, 
So do not say, FORGETl" 



Flage Presented by the Charlotte Women 

Charlotte was not behind the other communities in presenting flags 
to her military companies, the "Hornet's Nest" and the Charlotte Grays," 
as they left for the war. 



of the Confederacy 115 

Mrs. J. A. Fore, former historian of the North Carolina Division, has 
given this very interesting account of the presentation ceremonies of 
these flags. 

"The "Hornet's Nest Riflemen'" were organized many years before 
the war between the States, and was one of the first companies to volun- 
teer and be mustered into the service of the State. 

"A bautiful Confederate flag was presented to the "Hornets 11 by the 
young ladies of Charlotte, on the 18th of April, 1861, and the presen' 
tation speech was made by Miss Sadler. The account is published in 
"The Daily Bulletin, 11 April 20th, 1861. The last clause of her speech 
reads thus — The prayers, the hopes, the hearts of our ladies go with you. 
We feel that success will crown our banner. We have no room for fears' 
To God and our community we devote you. 11 

"The account says further that the Hornet's Nest Riflemen were or- 
dered to Wilmington to assist in taking possession of the ports, so as 
to anticipate Lincoln's action and to prevent bloodshed. 

"The Captain of the company was L. S. Williams, father of Mrs. 
J. P. Caldwell. 

"The "Charlotte Grays 1 '' was a company of boys under 21 years of 
age and the Captain was young Edgar Ross, who was only nineteen 
years of age. The presentation of the beautiful hand painted banner 
took place in the Presbyterian church yard, and the speech was made by 
Miss Hattie Howell, a beautiful young girl of sixteen years, who said: 
"Capt. Ross, I present to you this flag for the Charlotte Grays, knowing 
that whatever happens it will never, while a man of you lives, be low 
ered in disgrace." Capt. Ross responded thus: "Miss Howell, and 
young ladies of Charlotte, we are honored by your gift. We accept 
this flag with thanks, and promise you, in the name of this company, 
that the Charlotte Grays will never see it dishonored. We may die in 
.its defense, but dishonored it shall never be. 11 

"This company and the Hornet's Nest Riflemen both were in the 
First Bethel Regiment, commanded by Col. D. H. Hill, afterward Gen- 
eral, that fought the first battle of the war, and caused it to said that 
"North Carolina was first at Bethel, etc. 11 



116 l<[orth Carolina, Women 



FIRST MONUMENTS AND MEMORIAL ASSOCIA- 
TIONS BY THE WOMEN OF NORTH CAROLINA 



"Then tell it, tell the story 

Carve it in living stonel 
Proclaim it to ages hoary, 

The Southland enshrines her own." 



Probably the first monument erected by any band of Southern women 
(the forerunner of many others) was over the grave of Miss Anne Car' 
ter Lee, by the women of Warren County; just before the war closed. 
Miss Lee, the daughter of Genral Robrt E. Lee, had died in the summer 
of \52, while refugeeing with her mother at Jones 1 Sulphur Springs, and 
was buried in the Jones' burial grounds. The committee was composed 
of the following women with Mrs. Joseph Speed Jones as chairman: 
Mrs. Wharton Green, who made the first contribution of two hundred 
dollars) Mrs. Lucinda Jones and Misses Maria Alston, Heck and Brown- 
law. 

These women sacrificed the remnant of their jewels and made other 
self -denials to thus honor the memory of the daughter of the South's 
Chief tian! Not a man was asked to contribute a cent. 

Warren county, like many other parts of the State, was the home 
of loyal Confederate women, among them being Mrs. Wharton Green, 
who (when Col. Green was away) sold her diamonds and bought am- 
munition and uniforms for his company. Mrs. Lucy Polk (nee Wil- 
liams) said to be the greatest belle the State has ever produced, gave 
of her means and services to the Cause, encouraging many a soldier by 
her lovliness of character. Another was Mrs. Joseph Jones, whose deeds 
of kindness to Confederate widows were innumerable. 



of the Confederacy 117 

Women of Fayetteville Erect First Confederate Monument in 

North Carolina. 



Early Memorial Association. 



"■Southern monuments are love tokens, of wounded hearts; emblems 
of tenderness and grief, of a mighty sorrow that is incurable." 



A few days after Sherman's raid through Fayetteville, Mrs. Jesse 
(Anne K.) Kyle, with other ladies, secured from the Mayor the back 
part of the cemetery, overlooking Cross Creek. The eighteen soldiers 
who had already died in the hospitals there and were interred in a lot on 
the creek, were disinterred and buried with twelve others in this lovely 
spot, by historic Cross Creek. Foot stones were placed at each grave and 
the names marked on them. Just at sunset Rev. Joseph C. Huske read 
the words: "I am the Resurrection and the Life, 1 '' while the caskets were 
lowered to their last resting place. A few girls of Fayetteville met daily 
under the direction of Mrs. Maria Spear at the home of the Misses Mai' 
lett, the first meeting being with Mrs. Jesse Kyle, and from bits of bright- 
ened scraps of their dresses, made a handsome silk quilt. This was sold 
&t a dollar a share and the sum of three hundred dollars was raised, with 
which a marble monument was bought. This shaft was erected Decern- 
ber 30th, 1868, over thirty graves whose occupants died in our hospitals. 
It was the first Confederate Monument in North Carolina and one of the 
^irst in the South. The ladies sent the quilt to President Davis and it 
is now in the North Carolina room at Richmond. During the time of 
the making of the quilt a few ladies of Fayetteville, the first ones being 
Mrs. Kyle, Misses Mallett, Anderson, Campbell, McLaurin and Poe, 
would gather quietly in the early morning and decorate the graves of 
the soldiers, one of them reading a prayer. This was the beginning of 
the Memorail Association of Fayetteville (now the U. D. C.,) which 
has never failed in all these years to perpetuate this loving and sacred 
custom. For many years every Tenth of May (our Memorail Day) 
the exercises have been held around this hallowed spot by old Cross 



118 'Horth Carolina Women 

Creek, while they "cover them over with beautiful flowers and deck 
them with garlands, these heroes of ours.'" 



Memorial Association of Wilmington 

On July 20, 1866, the women of Wilmington met at the City Hall 
where they made plans for th first decoration of their soldiers' graves 
after the war. At this meeting Mrs. Armand DeRossette who had been 
president of the Soldiers 1 Aid Society (organised May, 1861) proposed 
a permanent Memorial Association. Her suggestion found an echo in 
the hearts of all present, and then and there the "Ladies Memorial As' 
sociation of Wilmington' 1 '' was formed. At that time the city being 
under martial law, word was sent to Washington that the "rebel women 
of Wilmington were plotting treason. 11 The authorities wired Federal 
officer in command of Wilmington "What are the rebel women of 
Wilmington doing? 11 

His response that the ladies of Wilmington were "quietly at their 
homes" won for him the gratitude of the "rebel women." 

In 1867 the Association was presented with a beautiful plot at Oak- 
wood cemetery. The last interment in this Memorial plot was that of 
an unknown soldier killed while the Federal gunboats were coming up 
the Cape Fear River in 1865, and buried by the road side where he 
had fallen. His body was reinterred beside these other heroes by the 
women of Wilmington. 

The monument to their Confederate dead was erected by this Mem' 
orial Association in 1872, the bronze used in this being made from can' 
non captured during the war. 



"No nation, people, race — in any way — so many monuments have 
reared as we the Southrons; every modest town may see stones of rem em' 
brance to the Men in Gray. 11 

The history of the Ladies Memorial Association of Wake County 
is one of the most notable of this State, and shows the unfaltering spirit 



of the Confederacy 119 

of these women. Mrs. Armistead Jones, a daughter of the gallant Gen' 
eral Branch, has written at our request, a most interesting and accurate 
history of this, one of the first associations to be organized in North 
Carolina. From her records we find that soon after the State Capitol 
was taken possession of by the Yankees (in '65) the mayor was notified 
that the bodies of the Confederate soldiers who had died in the hospitals 
in Raleigh and buried there, must be removed so that their dead might 
be buried on this spot. A few of the ladies who had worked in the 
soldiers hospitals and sewing societies, then organised themselves into 
this Memorial Association, the following being the charter members: 
Mrs. L. O'B. Branch, (widow of General Branch) President, Mrs. Henry 
Miller, Vice-President, Miss Sophia Partridge, Secretary, Miss Anne 
Mason Leeds, Mrs. John Devereux and Miss Margaret Iredell. On re 
ceiving an order that unless the remains of the Confederates were re- 
moved at once they would be thrown out in the road, these women, ac' 
companied by some of the gentlemen of Raleigh, with shovels and wheel 
barrows, tenderly and carefully reinterred them in another spot,making 
with their own hands the rough hewn coffins. A plot of ground was 
given the ladies by Mr. Henry Mordecai, also one was offered by Miss 
Anne Devereux, stipulating in the deed that no one but a Confederate 
soldier could be buried there. Some time later the ladies had one hun' 
dred and eight bodies of their soldiers removed from Arlington and inter- 
red in this beautiful Confederate Cemetery, where now are laid to rest 
those from the SoldierisHome as they "pass over the river.'" Soon after 
this, a monument was erected there. 

Women of New Bern Organize Memorial Association 

After suffering so much during the war, the women of New Bern 
were among the first to organize a Memorial Association, the object 
being to care for their dead heroes. Mrs. F. C. Roberts (until recently 
the oldest living member of the twenty-two women who were charter 
members, with Mrs. B. C. Davis as president), in her history of this 
Association says: "In an open field at the edge of town, there were 
many graves marked with wooden strips, which were already decaying. 
Yankees and Confederates had been buried together. The U. S. army, 
then in power, had appropriated a spacious plot for their dead, and were 
removing them and beautifying their resting place. The enemy gen- 



120 T^prth Carolina Women 

erously offered to provide coffins, and bury our dead also. We de' 
clined the offer, particularly, as their coffins were regulation length, and 
if one poor fellow happened to be a little too tall, they jumped on him 
and mashed him down. We got permission from our rulers, (it was in 
reconstruction days, we were under martial law) to allow our graves 
to remain unmolested till we were ready to care for trjem. Oh! We 
were so poor and so desperate these days; but our hearts were filled 
with patriotic zeal, that could remove mountains and defy all obstacles. 
It required patience, hard work and rigid self denial, to raise three 
thousand dollars with which to build our monument. This we ac' 
complished in many efforts. A bazzar brought us in one thousand 
dollars. Tableaux and concerts and private contributions completed 
the sum, but this took time." 

The women of Tarboro began their Memorial Association early after 
the war, led by Mrs. Henry Dockery and Miss Arabella Clark , Parker, 
who were devout in their ministrations for the dead, as they had been 
to the living soldires. 

Monument at Battle Field of Averasboro 
by Commnuity Women. 

The following account of the Memorial Society of the women of the 
Averasboro community, probably one of the first in the South, is given 
by Miss Jessie Slocumb Smith, the President of the Dunn Chapter U. 
D. C. 

"Soon after the close of the war, the neighbors in the vicinity of the 
battle of Averasboro disinterred these bodies of our Confederate dead 
and removed them to an appropriate spot near the third line of breast' 
works. This spot they named Chicora. Very appropriate the name 
seems, as Chicora is the Indian name for Carolina, and most of the dead 
were South Carolinians, whose bodies and memories have been carefully 
cherished by this North Carolina community. 

"To the John Smith home mentioned before, Oak Grove it was called, 
there came also the proud honor of receiving the first, or one of the first 
memorial associations organized in the south. The ladies of the neigh' 
borhood had during the year '66 formed an organization and decorated 
the graves in that spring, and now the ex- Confederate hospital again 



of the Confederacy 121 

occupied by its former owners, opened its doors with gracious hospitality 
to receive the ladies, who on May 15th, 1867, formally organized the 
Smith ville Memorial Association "for the purpose of procuring funds 
for enclosing the cemetery, and for erecting a monument to the memory 
of our Confederate dead who fell in the battle of Averasboro, N. C." 

"The old organization was sustained and the following officers elected 
President, Mrs Julia J. Williams; Vice-President, Mrs. R. R. Roberson 
Vice-President, Miss Bettie Sanders; Vice-President, Miss Sallie Smith 
Vice-President, Miss S. E. Smith; Secretary, Miss Louise Smith; Treas- 
urer, Miss Janie Smith; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. J. C. Smith. 

"How diligently this memorial association labored is shown by the 
fact that as early as February 15th, 1868, a substantial iron railing was 
purchased for the cemetery. A monument, a handsome one for its time, 
was then erected ,and unveiled May 10th, 1872. As to the work and 
sacrifice required to accomplish this, the following is copied from a letter 
written by the last surviving charter member of the association, one who 
has since gone to join those brave comrades of the sixties: "While this 
monument fittingly marks the resting place of loved and honored dead, 
fallen heroes of the Confederate army, yet it also memoralizes the devo- 
tion, heroism and nobility of soul of their survivors. In those days a 
dollar loomed large with importance and each gift represented toil and 
sacrifice. , ' > The work was begun just after our country had been de- 
vastated by the enemy, and was still garrisoned by Federal troops. Col- 
lection of funds was carried on during the period of reconstruction. 

"Through all the sixty intervening years since those brave men so 
nobly gave their all, the same spirit of devotion to a righteous cause has 
kept alive the old memorial association. Not once has a Tenth of May 
rolled round that the cemetery has not been put in order and appropriate 
exercises held. And this the more remarkable as it was an isolated 
country neighborhood. 

"On May 10th, 1904, the Smithville Memorial Association became 
the Chicora Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy of Dunn, 
N. C. Right bravely has the daughters carried on the work of the 
mother association. Could the organizers of the sixties look down, they 
could proudly say "Well done my daughters." 

"Oh Mothers of the Sixties! yours was a noble work, nobly done. The 
torch held so high and yet so bravely has been passed to our hands. Ours 



lil Worth Carolina Women 

the task to hold it high, ours the task to pass it on. May we bear it in 
your same lofty spirit; may we carry on the work with your same un- 
selfish devotion." 



A story of real heroism lies behind the unique inscription on a tomb' 
stone, referred to on page 29. This inscription brings a vision of a wo' 
man unafraid, who fought for her home and the ham bone which was 
all she had left for the two convalescing soldier sons who had returned 
from camp after being wounded. The young woman was Mrs. Rebecca 
Jones, wife of G. H. Alford, a member of the Pleasant Grove Baptist 
Church of Wake county, whose son, the late George Benton Alford, 
erected this monument to his plucky mother. 

Mrs. Alford not only charged with an unexpected fierceness that dis- 
armed Sherman's soldiers from stealing her precious ham bone, but when 
one of them threatened to burn the negro quarters, she picked up a stick 
of wood and hit him over the head. This was truly a soldier without 
gun or sword, who kept her home intact. 



of the Confederacy 12'. 



NORTH CAROLINA MOTHERS OF MANY SONS 



"The greatest battle that was ever fought, 
Shall I tell you where and when? 
On the maps of the world you'll find it not; 
It was fought by the mothers of men." 



The unfaltering courage of the Confederate women was especially 
shown when a mother sent forth a number of her sons in their young 
manhood "to do or die." We are here recording only a comparatively 
few names of such mothers, and feel that this is only the beginning of 
a splendid honor roll 'of our State's mothers of the war between the 
States. 

The mother whose name deserves to stand foremost in this honor roll 
is Mrs. Lemuel (Lucy Faucett) Simpson, of Alamance County, who 
gave all her sons, ELEVEN, to the Confederacy. The names of these 
were: William, Faucette, Benjamin Franklin, Lemeul, George Washing' 
ton, Jefferson, Martin Van Buren, James Ruffin, Haywood, Henry 
Jackson, and Wyatt. 

Next we record eleven who volunteered withm a week, the mother of 
these being Mrs. Reuben Jones (Flora Macdonald) of Scotland county, 
who seemed to inherit the brave and gallant spirit of her namesake, the 
Scotch heroine of Prince Charlie fame, who bravely said to her eleven 
boys, "I can not hold you, when your country calls you." The names of 
these sons were: Daniel, John, William, Archibald, James, Duncan, 
Hiram, Malcom, Sandy, (or Alexander) Dougal, and Samuel. All of 
these are dead except Samuel, the youngest one. 

Next on our honor roll we place the name of Mrs. Robert Tolar (Fan 
nie Autry) of Cumberland County, who gaveher husband, nine sons, 
one son-in-law and her fifteen year old grandson, John R. Tolar. After 
heroically bidding goodby to her husband and nine sons, Mrs. Tolar de- 



124 Worth Carolina Women 

voted herself to her large plantation from which she supported many 
needy families of absent soldiers. The names of her nine sons are: Al' 
fred, Haynes, Joseph, Matthew, Thomas, Sampson, William, John and 
Robert. 



Another mother of nine sons was Mrs. Robert Thomas (Mary Lewis) 
of Granville County. 

Mrs. Nancy Stinson of Chatham county, gave nine sons and enough 
relations to the Confederate cause to form a company. She gave her 
children, her love, her time, and her work and she was known far and 
-wide as Mother Stinson. She lived to the ripe old age of 98, being an 
honorary member of the Winnie Davis Chapter U. D. C. at Pittsboro. 

A mother of nine sons in the service of the Confederacy was Mrs. 
James (Sarah Goodman) Deaton, of Iredell county. These were Caleb, 
who lost his mind from brutal prison treatment, Thomas, Aaron, both 
killed in battle, John, Samuel, Edward, Cornelius, George, and Pinckney. 

We find also the following names of mothers of eight sons in the 
,Confederacy. 

Mrs. Farquahard Smith of Averasboro (then Cumberland, now Har' 
nett county), gave her eight sons to the Confederate service. One son, 
Alex, was in the home guard, Curtis and Farquhard were in the medical 
department, James, Douglas and Henry were in the cavalry and Edward 
was in the infantry. The youngest, Jesse Slocumb, a lad of sixteen, was 
a courier boy on the staff of General Hardee in the battle of Bentonville, 
N. C. Mrs. Smith herself was the granddaughter of Colonel Ezekiel 
Smith and his wife Mary Slocumb, the heroine of Moore's Creek battle. 
So this Confederate mother inherited her patriotism. 

The widow Stephens of Buncombe county, gave her all — her eight 
stalwart sons — to the Confederacy. 

The name of Mrs. Stephens of Buncombe county, should hold a high 
place on the honor roll. She gave her eight sons, all farmers, to fight 



of the Confederacy 125 

for their country, running the farm herself and fighting a real fight on 
her mountain farm. All of these eight boys returned to her, and forty 
three years after their soldier life, all the eight were living — a remarkable 
record. Joining the widow Stephen's farm were the Blacks, which family 
also gave eight members to the Confederacy, seven sons and the father. 
Sixteen soldiers from two families. 



The widow Polly Ray of the Longstreet community, Cumberland 
county, gave her seven sons, from the youth of sixteen to the son of 
thirty. None had greater anguish of heart than this poor widow, who 
was left, when the war ended with only her young daughter, as all of 
her seven sons lost their lives on the battle fields of the Confederacy. 
In this whole neighboorhood of Longstreet (one of the earliest Scotch 
settlements of the State) every young man volunteered for service at 
the first of the war, and so many were killed that it is said that there 
was not a birth in that community for many years. 



Mrs. Olive Tatum, of Bladen county, gave seven sons to the Confed- 
eracy, five of these gave up their lives in the service — she was truly a 
"Mother of the Gracchi." The names of these were: Marshal, Rich' 
ard, Jonathan, Simeon, Gray, Hanson, and Alexander. Only two of 
these returned. 

Those who gave seven sons to the service are Mrs. Mason Lee Wig- 
gins (Elizabeth Slade) of Woodlawn, Halifax county, their names being: 
William, Blake, John, Alfred, Thomas, Octavius, Eugene, the latter 
entering the army at fourteen years of age. 

Another mother of seven sons was Mrs. Black cf Buncombe county, 
who gave not only her sons, but her husband to the Confederate service. 

Mrs. Thomas (Rachael Jeffries) Moore, of Alamance county, gave 
her seven sons, they were: Harrison, Solomon, Evans, Isaac, Jefferson, 
William, and Haywood. 

Old Mrs. Sally Michels of Burke county, gave seven sons to the war 
and the maker of the famous clay pipes she kept many a soldier happy 
with her gifts which "went up in smoke." When Col. Wm. Pearson, 
of Morganton, after his return from Italy, told her that King Victor had 
pronounced her clay the best he'd ever smoked, "Aunt Sally" with a toss 



126 Worth Carolina Women 

of her head said, "That's nothing, Zeb Vance said that it was the best 
■he ever tried." "Aunt Sally" showed her State pride. 

Mrs. David Stevenson, of Johnston county, gave seven sons and not 
one of them received a scratch. 

Mrs. Jane Cooper Stratford, of Guilford county, gave seven sons for 
the army. 

Mrs. Neal McLean, of Laurinburg, was another mother of seven sons 
— three being killed in battle. 



Mrs. Alvi Robbins, who was Miss Mary Brown, of Randolph County, 
gave six sons to the war. These were, Julius Alexander, Franklin Childs, 
James LaFayette, Madison Columbus, Roswell Washington, and Wib 
liam McKindy. When the body of her fourth son was brought home 
from the battle field, the mother of these six soldiers leaned over the 
casket with a face like marble, and said, "Though He slay me yet will 
I trust in firm. 1 '' 

Mrs. Thomas Morgan of Granville county, gave six sons to the Con' 
federacy and all six were \illed in service. Truly her name should be 
recorded in letters of gold. 

There were six sons of Mrs. Henry G. (Elisabeth Arrington) Wib 
Hams of Granville county who were in the service. They were: Col. 
Solomon (killed in action), Samuel, A. H. A., Thomas, (killed) John 
and William (died in service) . 

Mrs. Armand DeRossette (Eliza Lord), that splendid war mother of 
Wilmington, gave six sons, John, William, Louis, Armand, Thomas and 
Edward, and three sons-in-law to her Southland. 

Mrs. Able Bowden, of Franklin county, sent six sons to the war, five 
of these taking part in the battle of Fort Fisher. 

Mrs. Robert (Margaret Robertson) Burwell, of Charlotte, gave six 
sons who were, John Bott, Armistead, William Robertson, Dandride 
Spottswood, Robert Turnbull, and James Webb. Robert and James 
lost their lives, the latter in his teens. 

Mrs. Thomas Chandler, of Granville county, had six sons in the great 
struggle. 

Six sons of Mrs. Richard Stallings, of Franklin county, were in the 
Confederate army, only one of them returning to her. 



of the Confederacy 127 

Mrs. Mary Morrow Heath (whose plantation joined the birth place 
of Andrew Jackson in Union county) gave six sons to the service. This 
splendid mother of the Confederacy lived to be ninety' four and these 
sons lived to be leaders in North Carolina's prominent business ac' 
tivities. 

Mrs. William White (Sarah Wilson) of Charlotte, gave six splendid 
sons to the Confederate army. 

Mrs. Samuel Mitcherson, of Wake county, was another mother of 
six sons in the Confederacy. 

In the roll of mothers who gave six sons to the Confederacy is Mrs. 
Henry (Maria Edmundson) Best, whose sons were Robert, Henry, Wil- 
liam E., T. H, B. J., and R. E. 

Mrs. Alex Dixon, of Orange county, gave her six sons. 

Mrs. Lewis Smith was the mother of six sons. 

Mrs. Hudlah Padrick, and Mrs. Thomas Garman, of Onslow county, 
each gave six sons to the Confederacy. 

Mrs. Jonathan M. Stone, (Rebecca Jane) gave six sons for the Con- 
federacy, from Nash county, they were: Albert, Silas, Rufus, Jackson, 
Atlas, and Marion. 

Among the mothers of six sons in the war was Mrs. Daniel Seagle, 
of Lincoln county. Their names form an array of patriotic Americans, 
being: Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, Martin Van Bueran, Polk Dab 
las, Benjamin Franklin, Nathaniel Macon, and Andrew Jackson. 

Mrs. John Wilfong, of Newton, was another mother of six sons in 
the war. These were: Milton, Henry, Pinkney, John, Sidney, and 
Charles. Besides these she gave (through her daughter) her son-in-law, 
Capt. M. L. McCorkle. 



In the list of mothers who gave five sons to the service is Mrs. Thomas 
Carlton, of Burke county, every one of them being killed. When the 
news finally came that her blue eyed, bright haired, baby boy, a lad 
just sixteen, had fallen, she called her son-in-law who had been discharged 
by the army surgeon as unfit for duty, and said while trembling with 
emotion: "Get your knapsack, William, the ranks must be filled." 
Such were the Spartan Mothers of the Confederacy 
It fell to Mrs. Morrison, of Davidson College, (a sister of the ex- 



728 7<[orih Carolina "Women 

Governor Graham) to give not only her own five sons to the Confed- 
eracy, but four most distinguished sons-in-law in the war. The latter 
were: Stonewall Jackson, General D. H. Hill, General Barringer, and 
.Major Avery, truly an Honor Roll of which the State was proud. 

Mrs. Isaac Avery, of Morganton, an untiring worker for the Cause, 
gave five sons to the war, two of them never returning. 

Mrs. Amos (Caroline Louisa Tomlinson) Weaver, of Iredell county, 
had five sons in the war, they were: George Washington, Henry Clay, 
Franklin Harrison, Romulus LaFayette, and Preston DeKalb. 

Mrs. Allison Lee Watson, born Elizabeth Yarborough, of Lexington, 
had five sons serving in the Confederate army, four of these having made 
the supreme sacrifice, the last one who enlisted at sixteen being left to 
her. The names of these sons are: Albert, James, Archibald, Charles, 
and Haywood. 

Mrs. William Joyner, of Franklin county, was the mother of five 
Confederate soldiers (two of them being twins), besides giving up her 
husband. Four of her boys were in the battle of Gettysburg. 

Among the mothers who gave five sons was Mrs. Sarah Jones Gill, 
of Wilson. These were: Frank, Thomas, Benjamin, John, James, two 
of them never returned. 

Mrs. Sallie Lancaster Hargrove, of Moore county, gave five sons to 
the Cause of the South. 

Mrs. Sophia Stedman Rutherfordton, (a widow) sent five sons to 
the war, Townsend, John, William, Josh, and Joe. 

Mrs. Zephaniah (Lucretia) Askew, of Hertford county, gave her 
five sons, Levi, Wilbur, Richard, Zephaniah, and Edward. 

Mrs. Godwin Moore, of Hertford county, gave John, Julian, Thomas, 
James, and William. 

Mrs. Mary Eliza Wooten, of Pitt county, sent five sons to the war: 
John, Edward, Lewis, Allen, Oscar. 

Mrs. David Ingle, of Alamance county, was another mother who 
gave five sons, they were, Sidney, Rufus, Albert, Mabin, and Thaddeus. 

Mrs. Samuel T. Allston, of Warren county, had five sons, the young' 
est of whom, Philip, is now commander of the first brigade of the N. C 
Division of the United Confederate Veterans. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Hoke Rowe, of Cabarrus county, had five sons in the 
war, and Mrs. Katherine Fry Smyre, of the same county, also had five 



of the Confederacy 129 

sons in service. These two women lived on and owned large adjoining 
farms, from which they sent large supplies to the army. 

Mrs. Angus McCatten, of Moore county, had five sons to volunteer 
for the service, all of them returning alive. 

Mrs. Edna Barnes, of Johnston county, gave five sons. 

Mrs. Ashley Home, of Johnston county, was the mother of five sons 
in the service of the Southland. Three of them being killed in the war. 

Mrs. Funifold (Kate Harrison) McDanial, of Trenton, had five sons 
iii the cavalry, all of these taking their horses with them from their plan' 
tation. 



Among the mothers of four sons in the Confederacy was Mrs. Wil- 
liam R. (Louisa Hogan) Holt, of Lexington, all of whom made the "su- 
preme sacrifice" in the war. 

Mrs. John McRae (Mary Shackleford) of Fayetteville, gave four sons 
to the service. They were: James, Thomas, Robert, John, and her step- 
son Duncan, making five McRaes from one family. 

Mrs. Oran Allston Palmer, of Chatham county, gave her four sons 
and all four were \illed at the battle of Gettysburg. 

Mrs. John Buxton Williams, of Warren county, gave four sons to 
the Confederacy: James, Harry, John, and Solomon. Her home, "Bux* 
ton Place," was a home for all the soldiers passing through Warren coun- 
ty, and this warm-hearted woman filled their knapsacks as they depart- 
ed with a cherry goodbye. 

Mrs. Amos Weaver, of Lenon, gave up four sons, they were: Frank- 
lin, George Washington, Preston, and Rufus. 

Mrs. Samuel Bennett (Jane Little), of Anson county, gave her four 
sons: John, Thomas, William, and Frank. 

Mrs. William Pridgen, (Patsy Lindsay) of Nash county, gave Alex- 
ander, Drewry, Josiah, and Henry to the cause. 

Mrs. Fannie Browning Smith, of Union Ridge, sent four sons, the 
last a mere boy, being brought back to her a corpse, was Robert Lawson 
Smith. 

Mrs. Lauchlan Bethune and Mrs. Flora Baker, of Moore county, each 
gave four sons. 

Mrs. Frederick Battle (Temple Perry), of Franklin and Nash coun- 
ties, gave four sons to the cause. 



130 7<[orih Carolina Women 

Mrs. (Rebecca Moore) Allen, wife of James J. Allen, gave four sons 
to the Confederacy: Andrew, Thomas, James, William. 

Mrs. May Ruffin and Mrs. Abia Person, of Franklin county, eacfi 
gave four sons to the South. 

Mrs. Duncan McGougan (Annie White) of Robeson county, gave 
four sons, Daniel, James, Alexander, and Reuben. 



North Carolina's role of mothers of three sons in the Confederacy 
would fill a volume, but the few of such names that have been secured 
deserve to be recorded. 

The only record we have of a mother who gave TRIPLETS to the 
Confederate army from North Carolina is that of Mrs. Margaret Smith 
Gibbs, of Wilkes county. The names of these triplets were : • William, 
Thomas and Robert. 

Mrs. Sarah Williams Chance, wife of Tillman F. Chance, of Rock' 
ingham county, had three sons in the war: Andrew Jackson, William 
Anderson, Tillman Franklin, Jr. The latter died in camp in October 
'62, leaving a little daughter whom he had never seen, this little girl now 
being Mrs. J. E. Heinserling, of Statesville, historian of the chapter there. 

Mrs. Mary (Laura King) Davidson, of Mecklenburg county, also 
contributed three sons to the Southern Cause, they were: John, Robert, 
and Richard. 

Mrs. Celia D. Bason, of Alamance county, gave three sons to Lee's 
army, they were: James, George and William. 

Mrs. Charles Manly, the wife of Ex-Governor of North Carolina, 
gave three sons and three sons-in-law. Two of whom were killed in 
battle. 

Mrs. Tempe Boddie Yancey, of Warren county, gave her sons George, 
Henry and John. 

Mrs. Lucinda Walker, of Union Ridge, sent to war John, William, 
and Joshua. 

Mrs. Andrew Grier, (born Margaret, daughter of General Paul Bar- 
ringer) of Mecklenburg county, gave three sons, they were: Samuel, 
William and Laban, besides her stepson Thomas. 

Mrs. Delany Andrews, of Asheboro, sent Allen, Thomas and Hese- 
kiah. 



of the Confederacy 131 

Mrs. Harriet Phillips gave her three sons, Joseph, James, and Fred' 
erick, of Tarboro. 

Mrs. Martha Thorne Nichols, of Halifax county, gave three sons to 
the Confederacy. 

Mrs. Edward McKethan, of Fayetteville, had three sons in the war, 
Hector, Augustus, and Edward. 

Mrs. John Moore, of Pitt county, sent her three sons to the war: 
John, Albert and William. 

Mrs. Jacob (Elizabeth) Sharpe, of Hertford county, gave all her sons, 
Thomas, William, and Henry Clay. 

Mrs. Henry A. London (Sallie Lord), of Wilmington and Pittsboro, 
gave her three boys, William Lord, Rufus Marsden, and Henry Armand. 

The following women of Hertford county each gave three sons: Mrs. 
Sophia Taylor gave John, Dorsey and LaFayette. 

Mrs. Lewis Pruden, had Charles, Henry and John in the war. 

Mrs. Harriett Deanes gave her three, James, John and Jefferson. 

Mrs. Carian Morris gave her sons, William, Calvin, Alpheus. 

Mrs. William (Emily) Joyner, of Pitt county,gave her three sons, > 
Robert, John and Edmund. The latter is the beloved Chaplain of the 
North Carolina Division of the United Confederate Veterans. 

Mrs. Lettie Jones Long, of Alamance county, gave her three sons to 
the Confederacy, and all were \illed. They were, Jacob, Thomas and 
Robert. The fourth and youngest son ran away and reached the army 
as the surrender took place. 

The story of how this widowed mother made a very dangerous jour' 
tiey to Virginia to find and bring back her wounded boy, going into the 
battlefield midst shot and shell, is one of real courage. The body 
of another son was brought back to this mother, two months after he] had 
been \illed. With devotion seldom equalled, Mrs. Long herself bathed 
and dressed the pitiful form of her loved one, saying that her boy should 
be cared for decently and tenderly, by his mother, Such as this was the 
spirit of the Confederate mothers. 



132 North Carolina "Women 

Confederate Mother Now Living 

North Carolina has the distinction of having a CONFEDERATE 
MOTHER NOW LIVING, who is nearing her one hundred 
and third birthday. This centenarian is Mrs. Julia Anne Pridgen, a 
resident of Pender county, who lives near the site of the famous revo' 
lutionary battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. Mrs. Pridgen was the 
mother of a Confederate soldier, M. B. Pridgen, now deceased, while 
her second son had volunteered to join the army when the war ended, 
he being too young before this. The reminiscences of this MOTHER 
OF THE CONFEDERACY are worthy of a volume by itself, as she 
vividly recalls not only the events of the war between the States but 
those of the Mexican outbreak. From her mental and physical strength 
it would not be surprising if Mrs Pridgen should not add several years 
to the one hundred and three she has already lived. 

All honor to this living MOTHER OF A CONFEDERATE SOL- 
DIER! 



of the Confederacy 133 



WELCOME HOME, HEROES IN GRAY! 



"I'm glad I an in Dixie, hooray, hooray. 
In Dixie's land I'll ta\e my stan,' 
To lib and die in Dixie." 



As the men in gray, tattered, footsore, dispirited, returned to their 
desolate homes, their women quieted them with undimmed courage and 
sweet resolution, arousing them to manly endeavor. Hundreds of these 
deilcate women, bred in affluence, were bravely working with thir hands 
for their daily bread. Many in old age, alone in the world, were bereft 
of all their possessions. 

These women had a difficult task to perform, and they nobly per' 
formed it! When the end came, instead of sitting down in despair, 
these women of the Confederacy led the way in building up the homes 
and shattered fortunes of the South. 

It has been said that the Confederacy never would have lasted for 
four years without the loyal enthusiasm of its women and their loving 
ministrations. 

Under the inspiration and energy of these Confederate women, homes 
again became homes, fields blossomed, order and system at last (reigned 
after those terrible reconstruction days. 

The words of our beloved chief tian, Robert E. Lee, tell how our 
Southland rose, rebuilt by determined and courageous men and women 
of the Confederacy. 

"We went home but our work was not completed, and it looked for 
awhile like the fortunate part of the Confederate army had "crossed 
the river," but with the same grit in peace that our boys had shown in 
war, they did not sit down and whine but went to work and thank God, 
through the spirit of their splendid example, our beloved Southland 
is more and more coming into her own as the days go by, and is already 
the choice part of the great and glorious Union." 



134 Worth Carolina Women 

"For out of the gloom future brightness is born, as after the night 
comes the sunrise of morn." 

In the face of overwhelming duties these noble women began the 
custom of annually decorating the graves of their soldier dead, thus 
bringing into existence the Southern Memorial Association. They com' 
s memorated the valor of the Confederate soldier in memorials through 
many a self' denial, as money was very scarce. They struggled for a home 
and pensions for the disabled soldiers and organised themselves and their 
descendents into a body of women, the United Daughters of the Con' 
federacy, to preserve the history of their Confederacy. No, what the 
North Carolina women of the sixties have done can never be forgotten 
by a State that loves to honor loyalty and self sacrifice. 

Most of these heroic women have passed into the Beyond, but may 
their memories remain with us. They were modest, unassuring .women, 
with no thought of what the world or coming generations would place 
upon the deeds of heroism and self 'sacrifice. 

"To us they live, an inspiration and a glory; 
The flight of years can bring no rust, 
To dim their fame in song and story." 

It was left to that knightly soldier, Col. Ashley Home of Clayton, 
to erect, in 1914, the only monument in North Carolina to the women 
of the Confederacy. This beautiful memorial stands in the Capitol 
grounds at Raleigh as a faithful witness to the sacrifice, heriosm, and 
loyalty of our women of the sixties. This "hero in times of war and 
patriot in times of peace," in giving this monument to the State said: 
"The silent woman of the Memorial will typify the uncomplaining wo' 
man of the Confederacy. 1 ' 

In accepting this memorial for the State, Governor Locke Craig said, 
"This statue is epic. Its theme is heroism and devotion; the inheritance 
of the children of the South. The bronze group represents the Grand' 
mother, unrolling the eager youth, grasping the sword of his father, the 
scroll of the father's deeds. The statue is illumined with unfolding 
meaning. 

"Women of the Confederacy, "Henceforth all generations shall call 
you blessed/ ' 



of Horth Carolina 135 

The following just tribute was paid the women of the Confederacy 
of North Carolina and is preserved among the State Laws of 1862- 1 63. 
"This General Assembly hereby records its heartfelt gratitude to the 
noble women of this State, who have done so much to alleviate the suf- 
fering of our soldiers and to sustain our righteous cause, and the Gov 
' ernor may, if he thinks expedient, record the distinguished names on 
the State's Roll of Honor." 

On December 9, 1863, in a Resolution by the General Assembly the 
following is incorporated: 

"Equal to our appreciation of the valor and patriotism of our troops 
in the field is our admiration of the ; self 'sacrificing and noble devotion 
of the women of our country in encouraging the soldiers on the way to 
the field of duty and of danger; in their untiring efforts to supply them 
with every comfort which their ingenuity can invent, and their indefa- 
tigable ministrations at the couch of the suffering, whether it be by dis- 
ease or by wounds received in the defense of their country. This de- 
votion to the cause of independence for which we are struggling is alike 
sustaining to the soldier on duty and the patriot at home and inspire all 
with that energy which enables us to work with confidence to its suc- 
cessful termination and in a Confederate Government established upon 
an equitable basis and entitled to the highest possible position among 
the nations of the earth." 

The record of North Carolina's women of the sixties can only be 
compared with that of her '"men in gray." 

In her devotion to her country, in duty and bravery and all that goes 
to make up a splendid woman, the world has no superior example than 
the Woman of the Confederacy. 

"'Who bade them go, with smiling tears, 
Who scorned the renegrade, 
And silencing their trembling fears, 
"Watched, cheered, and prayed. 

""Who nursed their wounds with tender care, 
"Who lifted them from dar\ despair — 
And counted not the cost? 
The women of the South. 



136 7<iorih Carolina Women 



NORTH CAROLINA VERSES OF THE SIXTIES 

"Poetes iare all who love, who feel great truths and tell them." 

Answer to The Conquered Banner 

(By Miss Sarah Ann Tillinghast, Fayetteville, N. C, written in 186?) 

"Touch it not, unfold it never, let it droop there, furled forever, 
For its people's hopes are dead." {Father Ryan's Conquered Banner) 

T^o, fold it not away forever, 
Keep it in hearts depth ever, 
Love it, \eep it for its past; 
Ta\e it out some time and wave it, 
Thin\ of those who died to save it, 
Glory in the blood we gave it, 
Bind it with our heart strings fast. 

Ta\e it out sometime and show it, 
Let your children early \now it, 
Know its glory — not its shame. 
Teach them early to adore it, 
Scorn forever those who tore it, 
Tell them how it won a name. 

'Tis a witness how secession 
Threw the glove down to oppression 
Scorning at last, concession, 
Giving life blood for the right. 
Oh, we cannot, cannot lose it, 
(Oh how could the world refuse it?) 
Can we let the foe abuse it 
Or its history bright? 



of the Confederacy 137 

In future years some hand may ta\e it 
From its resting place and sha\e it 
O'er the young and brave, 
And the old spirit still undaunted 
In their young hearts by God implanted 
Will triumph o'er foes who vaunted 
And freedom to the South be granted, 
Though there's now no one to save it. 

Though folded now away so sadly 
In future years we'll wave it gladly, 
In prosperous path we'll tread. 
And thousands, yet unborn, shall hail it, 
Tens of thousands never fail it, 
Forgotten be the men who wail it — 
Hated those who now can trail it — 
Oh, can our hopes be dead? 



Reconstruction 

(By Mrs. Fannie Downing, written in the Sixties) 

To die for Dixiel Oh, how blest 
Are those who early went to rest, 
T'ior \new the futures' s awful store, 
But deemed the cause they fought for sure 
As heaven itself; and so laid down 
The cross of earth for glory's crown, 
And nobly died for Dixie. 

To live for Dixiel Harder parti 
To stay the hand, to still the heart, 
To seal the lips, enshroud the past, 
To have no future — all o'ercast; 
To \nit life's bro\en threads again, 
And \eep her mem'ry pure from strain, 
This is to live for Dixie. 



138 Horth Carolina Women 



Carolina's Dead 



By Miss Sarah Ann Tillinghast 
(Written for the unveiling of the Cumberland County Confederate Monument, 

May 10th, 1902) 



Uncoffined on the battlefield, 
Those dreamless ones are sleeping, 
Unconscious of the memories 
Left in hearts that still are weeping — 
Weeping for those that never came — 
Brothers, and friends, and lovers, 
Those gallant ones whose precious forms 
Virginias soil now covers. 

Then raise your monumental stone 
To tell the grand old story 
How splendidly her soldier hoys 
Fought for the old State's glory! 
And let the little children \now 
The flag their fathers died for, 
Teach them the cause they loved in vain, 
The principals they tried for. 

For is not true, tried, patriotic love 
A corner stone worth trying, 
O'er which to build our country up? 
Then not in vain their dying. 
And when this day comes yearly round 
Get out the flag and wave it 
Above the record of their deeds 
Of those who died to save it. 



of the Confederacy 139 

The Woman of the Confederacy 



(By Henry Jerome Stockard, late Poet Laureat of North Carolina, written for 
unveiling of Confederate Woman's Monument in 1914) 



She calmly brought her sabre bright, 

Tempered with death; 
And, girding him, her all, aright, 
And spo\e with eyes of \indling light 

More than tongue uttereth. 

And then she waved farewell at last, 

'With grief struc\ dumb, 
As bannered squadrons hurried past, 
And bugles with imperious blast 

Stammered delirium. 

The canvas can not hold her grace; 

Its colors warm 
The damps of centuries erase; 
Yet o'er the scathing years her face 

'Will live beyond all harm. 

7<[or yet may story guard the trust, 

T^or song divine; 
They, li\e their builders, turn to dust — 
Beyond corrupting moth and rust 

Stands, veiled with light, her shrine. 

And love will \eep it, love alone, 

Safe from decay — 
Love wherewith God Himself is one — 
When time's rule shall be overthrown, 

And earth shall pass away. 

~h[or bronze nor stone shall bear her name 

Through time tO'be: 
These may be touched by frost or flame 
And sin\ on ruin, while her fame 

Is for eternity. 



140 Tiorth Carolina Women 



Gloria Victis 



By Mrs. Francis F. Tiernan ("Christian Reid"). Written at the unveiling of 

the monument at Salisbury in memory of the Confederate dead, representing the 

group of a dying Confederate soldier supported and crowned by fame. 

T^o warrior of the golden past, of glorious antique days, 

Crowned with the victor wreath of Greece, or Rome's immortal hays, 

T^o \night who laid his lance in rest with mighty Charlemagne, 
Or bore the brave crusader's cross in great St. Louis' train. 

But the heir of all these heroes of the great days of old, 

Last of the long and gallant line of \nightly hearts of gold, 

K)ne who has written with his sword his name upon ike page 
Of glory's deathless muster'roll, gathered from every age. 

A soldier of the Southern Cross, a hero of the cause 

Of the sacred right of Sovereign States, of chartered claims and laws 
Which sprang from the great Charter, wrung by the barons bold 

From a craven \ing of Runnymede, in the brave times of old. 

In bronze he is before us here, this patriot of our land; 

This type of all the gallant men who ever more shall stand 
For all of human valor, for all of noble worth, 

And for all of dauntless courage that has glorified the earth. 

A strippling, so we see him, one of the great array 

Of the young South who sprang to arms without an hour's delay, 

Leaving the sports of boyhood, leaving the wor\ of men, 

Turning away from the sunny life, they never could \now again. 

Up with a smile in the saddle, to ride and fight and fly, 

Or marshalled into seried ran\s to stand and fight and die, 

Storming with rec\less daring the heights of shot and shell, 
Or dashing with rec\less might into the jaws of hell. 

Who does not \now the story? See, you can read it there, 

Told in its matchless glory, told in its last despair. 
Loo\l He has fought to the utmost, stripped for the last hard fight, 

Fought till his gun is bro\en, and the bitter end is in sight. 



of the Confederacy 141 

Then, as he falls exhausted, with face of noble calm. 

The steadfast face of a hero, worthy a martyr's palm, 
Then as he sin\s in dying, lol from that realm ajar, 

Where justice holds her even scale above the chance of war. 

A splendid form has swept the earth, to bear him in her clasp, 
'Tis Glory, with the laurel' wreath of fame within her grasp ! 

And on the vanquished hero's brow her hand will place that wreath, 
The symbol of immortal fame beyond the reach of death. 



PRINTED BY 
CUMBERLAND PRINTIHG CO. FHYETTEVILLE, PI. C. 



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